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Unit 03: Health Improvement and Promoting Well-being

Level: Level 5 Diploma

Task 1 of 2

Provide a comprehensive report on approaches used for health improvement and the promotion of well-being. Your report should:

1. Evaluate the concept of health and ill health

Health is a multifaceted notion that can mean different things to different people. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a condition of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of sickness.” Conversely, illness refers to a condition characterised by physiological or psychological dysfunction.

The state of one’s health can be determined by a variety of influences. Physical health is subject to a wide range of factors, including diet, lifestyle, and genetics. Additional factors that can have an impact on one’s mental health include stress, anxiety, and depression. Social health is influenced by a wide range of dynamics, including socioeconomic position, levels of social participation, and social cohesion. Being disease-free is only one aspect of health. When people are well physiologically and psychologically, they are said to be healthy.

It’s possible to see health and illness from a variety of perspectives. The medical model is one such framework; its main emphasis is on identifying and curing health problems. Typical Western medicine frequently use this model. The wellness model is another theoretical grounding, with its main emphasis being the maintenance and improvement of physical and mental health. There is an objective reality of illness, and it is the practitioner’s job to recognise and treat that reality, according to the medical model. This concept tends to be reductionist in nature, with emphasis placed on the disease itself rather than the patient as a whole. In contrast, the wellness paradigm holds that disease is subjective and that it is the responsibility of healthcare providers to improve their patient’s health and well-being. This approach is generally more all-encompassing, considering the individual in context. CAM (complementary and alternative medicine) often takes a wellness-oriented approach, while conventional Western medicine favours a medical perspective. Though neither model is universally preferred, many medical professionals incorporate elements of both in their work.

It is common to talk about someone’s “positive health,” or a state of complete wellness, and their “negative health,” or an ailment or disease. Today, the concept of health encompasses more than just the absence of illness. Wellness refers to a state of complete physical, mental, and social health. Conversely, unhealthy states are typically associated with being ill. The terms “physiological health,” “psychological health,” and “environmental health” is often used to describe different aspects of overall wellness. The term “physical health” refers to the overall condition of a person’s body and encompasses things like exercise, diet, and stress management. The term “psychological health” refers to an individual’s emotional well-being and covers a wide range of issues. Considerable social support, positive relationships, and active participation in one’s a community all contribute to one’s overall social health.

Illness can also be broken down into its component parts, acute illness and chronic illness. Acute sickness is characterised by a rapid onset and rapid improvement in symptoms. In contrast, those who suffer from chronic ill health deal with a condition that lasts for a significant amount of time and may never be cured, at most being controlled.

When it comes to both physical and mental health, the causes are many and complex. Injuries, illnesses, and toxic exposure are all examples of physical causes. Conditions like stress, anxiety, and depression can originate in the mind. Bad habits like smoking, binge drinking, and inactivity can all contribute to poor health. Furthermore, this could be sudden, as in the case of someone who has suffered a cardiac arrest due to smoking, or gradual, as in the case of someone who has developed respiratory infections due to smoking.

2. Compare and contrast models of health

Regarding health and well-being, people’s attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions can be profoundly influenced by popularly held models of health. These models may also encourage people to acknowledge the significance of such models when assessing their own psychological health. A comparison between the medical model and the social model of health can be seen in the following:

Biomedical Model of Health

In the field of health and social care, the biomedical model is the most widely accepted. In this sense, the biological model and the medical model are interchangeable. Those who subscribe to the biological concept of health believe that illness is primarily a matter of body function. According to this view, being healthy means not being sick; diseases are caused by pathogens like bacteria and viruses and other cellular or physiological irregularities. In this view, the social, mental and emotional states are not causal in the development of disease. The patient bears no responsibility for their illness; rather, they are helpless victims of pathogens responsible for the illness, and physiotherapy and pharmacological treatment are provided.

This necessitates the elimination of pathogens, either surgically or chemically. This method is unique in its reliance on mechanical and electronic devices; the doctor is assumed to have all the knowledge necessary to effectively treat the patient, and patients are expected to simply follow the prescribed treatment plan. The medical model is effective for life-threatening conditions; it provides a speedy means of relieving symptoms. This model has some drawbacks, some of which are listed below:

  • The focus on price in this model suggests that rising healthcare costs could put a financial burden on people, and income requirements apply.
  • The “mind” is disregarded in favour of treating the body as a machine that may be repaired.
  • It doesn’t cure all ailments.

Social Model of Health

According to social models of health, our well-being is affected by a wide variety of contextual factors, including those at the interpersonal, organisational, individual, ecological, political, social, and economic levels. The social model of health suggests that we broaden our emphasis beyond the traditional medical disciplines of anatomy, biology, and physiology to investigate the many factors that contribute to individual and community well-being. It is attributed to the fact that knowing how individuals engage with each other and how well the body, society, and mind are all intertwined is essential to comprehending health and what keeps individuals well. Many indicators point to worse health conditions and higher mortality rates among residents of economically disadvantaged societies. The impact of one’s social circle on one’s health is often underestimated. Therefore, ill health is considered a multifaceted problem with multiple causes.

In contrast to the biomedical model, which treats the human body as a broken machine that can be patched up, the social model considers the body to be an integral part of a larger system. The social model puts emphasis on societal structures, while the biological model emphasises the individual. Racial discrimination and economic hardship are two examples of external elements that the social model considers.

Both the biological model and the social model of health attempt to provide explanations for the phenomenon of wellness and disease. Each approach has benefits and drawbacks, but they do exhibit some characteristics. By way of illustration, in both frameworks, health is conceived of as a balance or equilibrium, and illness is a violation of that equilibrium. Even while the social model also highlights the relevance of social variables like poverty or inequality, both models highlight the role of biological causes in triggering diseases.

The biomedical model emphasises the present and views health as a goal that can be attained via the application of specific medical procedures. However, the social model of health takes a more long-term perspective, viewing health as a goal that can be attained through broader societal and economic shifts.

Thus, the biological model of health attributes ill health to pathogens or the actions of the individual. Conversely, the social model of health attributes poor health to structural and institutionalised inequalities in society and the economy, such as unemployment, poverty, discrimination, and unsafe working conditions.

The biomedical approach to health care concentrates on the physiological aspects of wellness while also highlighting the biological origins of disease. The theory holds that medical care can improve people’s health. On the other hand, the sociological aspects of health receive more attention in the social model of health. This means that issues of social inequality and poverty might have a negative effect on an individual’s health. According to the social model, health can be improved through political and economic reforms.

3. Analyse factors affecting health and well being

One of the most pressing problems facing modern civilisation is the fallout from people’s unhealthy lifestyle choices (Naidoo and Wills, 2000). Tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity are directly responsible for almost 30 per cent of premature fatalities in the United Kingdom (Marphatia, 2006). Subsequently, it is possible to prevent many lifestyle-related health issues. Cancer, heart disease, and respiratory problems are just some of the illnesses thought to be caused by smoking (WHO, 2002).

Culture plays a role in how people perceive health and illness. It’s possible that the diets of people from different cultures could affect their physical well-being. The standards by which one determines a healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may vary from one culture to the next. In some cultures, for instance, people believe that evil spirits are responsible for causing specific illnesses.

Excessive alcohol consumption is harmful to health in many ways. It plays a significant role in causing heart problems, cancer, and liver disease. Depression and anxiety are only two of the many mental health problems that could arise. The government of the United Kingdom recommends that men and women not drink more than 14 units of alcohol per week. This is equivalent to six pints of beer or seven wine glasses.

Although females tend to have a longer life span than males, they tend to have distinct health difficulties throughout their lives. Depression and anxiety, for instance, affect women at a higher rate than men. Arthritis and heart disease are two of the many significant health problems that are more common among women. It can happen for a number of reasons. One is that male and female stressors are often distinct. Women are disproportionately affected by domestic violence and sexual assault, both of which can have negative long-term effects on health. In addition, women are significantly represented in cheap, high-stress occupations, which has been linked to a variety of health problems. Studies suggest that hormones may play a role in these differences.

One out of every twenty fatalities in the UK is attributed to lack of exercise (British Heart Foundation, 2019). This translates to over 35,000 avoidable deaths annually (Gormley et al., 2017). The positive effects of exercise on physical health and well-being are widely acknowledged. It is well-established that regular exercise enhances health indicators such as heart health, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition (Rasmussen et al., 2016). Exercising also reduces the risk of acquiring chronic conditions like cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, stroke, and osteoporosis (Kramer et al., 2018). However, injuries can occur during exercise due to overuse of muscles, improper warmup and cooldown, and using unsuitable equipment. Injuries to the knee, such as the runner’s knee, are prevalent due to the impact and motion of running. Constant pounding can cause swelling and pain in the knee. Understanding the warning signs of exercise-related injuries is essential if one exercises often. When you experience discomfort or any indications, relax the affected area and contact a doctor if the pain does not improve.

It’s no secret that drug abuse is a major problem in modern society. One in ten people who use illegal substances in the UK may face a crisis due to their addiction, and this number is likely much higher (Office for National Statistics, 2020). Addiction can have serious negative consequences for one’s health. In addition to physical health difficulties like liver damage, it can also cause mental health issues, including anxiety and panic attacks. As a result, it can lead to more accidents, more deaths, and even more criminal activity.

Compared to heterosexuals, those who identify as homosexual, bisexual, or transgender may have unique health concerns (D’Augelli, 2002). The medical care available to them may also vary (Szymanski, Chung, & Balsam, 2001). Some research suggests that LGBT people may have a higher incidence of mental health problems (Bostwick, Boyd, Hughes, & McCabe, 2010). There is some evidence that those who identify as LGBT have a higher suicide attempt rate than the general population (Cochran, Sullivan, & Mays, 2003).

People who are out of work have a higher risk of being poor, which can negatively impact their health. People who are unemployed are more likely to go without necessary medical treatment and nutritious meals.

Individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are disproportionately affected by poverty and poor health. It’s possible that they would have less money for groceries and health care, too. Moreover, those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are disproportionately overrepresented in occupations that pose health risks due to their inherent danger or physical demands.

While the health of younger people is superior to that of the elderly, youngsters are more likely to partake in high-risk behaviours like drinking and speeding, which can lead to serious harm. However, the elderly have a higher prevalence of chronic diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Those who struggle financially are more likely to be disadvantaged, which in turn can negatively impact their health. Poor people may also be less likely to have access to healthcare and nutritious food.

The environment and house a person lives in can affect a person’s well-being and health. Poor living conditions can lead to a variety of health problems for its inhabitants. People living in poor-quality housing may also be less likely to have ready access to adequate medical care and nutritious food.

Pollution is harmful to people’s health and quality of life, and those who choose to make their homes in heavily polluted areas do so at the risk of health challenges.

4. Analyse the connection between diet, exercise and health

The connection between eating right, working out, and staying healthy is often called the “fitness equation.” Maintaining a healthy body requires a commitment to both a healthy diet and regular exercise (exercise). Eating healthily provides the body with the fuel it needs to perform its function. Performing aerobic exercise raises heart rate and decreases the likelihood of acquiring cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other chronic conditions.

The benefits of a healthy diet and regular exercise have been demonstrated by numerous scientific research. Maintaining a healthy weight and reducing the risk of acquiring cancer, heart disease, and stroke are just two of the many benefits of eating a balanced, nutritious diet. Exercising has many benefits, including extending life expectancy, improving mental health, and decreasing the likelihood of developing chronic diseases.

There are several approaches to maintaining a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet and regular exercise. Considering that individuals have varying needs and responses, it is impossible to prescribe a universal approach to healthy living. Though, a few extensive guidelines can be helpful.

It is recommended to stick to a diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains while cutting back on sugary beverages and foods that are high in saturated and trans fats. It’s also crucial to eat a wide variety of foods, as each type of food has a unique nutrient value.

Maintaining a healthy body requires consistent physical activity. The Department of Health and Human Services recommends that adults get at least 175 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise every week. That’s the equivalent of a 30-minute workout on a weekday.

When trying to maintain a fitness routine over time, it’s important to pick something that you enjoy doing. Walking, jogging, swimming, and riding a bike are all great ways to get started if you’re not sure how to begin.

Choosing to live a healthy life by doing things like eating healthy foods and working out often is one of the best things you can do for your health. By making these decisions, one can improve their overall health and well-being and reduce their likelihood of developing chronic diseases.

5. Evaluate the role of media in influencing attitudes to health

It’s impossible to overstate the impact the media has on our modern lives. From the moment we wake up until the moment we go to sleep, we are glued to some form of electronic media, be it radio, television, newspapers, the internet, or social media. Therefore, it is fair to conclude that we currently inhabit a world that is completely saturated with media.

How we feel about health is significantly impacted by what we see and read in the media. Models in publications, actresses in ads, and actors in movies all relay the message that only a perfect physique is deemed to be desirable and healthy by the images they portray. The pressure this places on people, particularly young people, to achieve an ideal body shape that is not only unattainable but also harmful is exacerbated by this trend.

Being dissatisfied with one’s physical appearance has been linked to an increased risk of mental health issues like depression, eating disorders, and low self-esteem. The media’s portrayal of health, meanwhile, is frequently exaggerated and incorrect. An analysis of women’s magazines indicated that nearly 70% of the pictures had been altered by photoshop (Valerie Kretz, 2009). This misrepresents the average human body and causes undue stress among its viewers.

The media has an effect on our eating habits in addition to our body image. Research shows that children who spend a lot of time in front of the TV are more prone to snack on unhealthy, high-fat meals. They are continuously being exposed to advertisements for these junk foods, which is a major contributing factor. In addition, food shows on television promote unhealthy eating habits by making healthy cooking seem like a breeze. People will eat more fast food and junk due to this reason.

The health implications of all of these are unfavourable. Keep in mind that the media is merely a reflection of our culture, and it is up to us to choose how that portrayal is accurate. The media shouldn’t have any say in what constitutes a healthy and attractive body. Rather than obsessing over weight and appearance, we should value health and fitness.

Conversely, the media can positively affect people’s perspectives on health by drawing attention to critical concerns, disseminating correct information, and encouraging healthy behaviours. The media can encourage healthy lifestyles by spreading messages about the value of vaccinations, the importance of maintaining a healthy weight, and the importance of taking care of one’s psychological health, among other things.

6. Explain the terms:

  • health education
  • health protection
  • disease prevention

Health education

The act of educating people on matters pertaining to their own health and well-being is referred to as “health education.” Accurate health information is a crucial part of health education. Methods of illness prevention, healthy lifestyle decisions, and gaining access to professional medical care are all part of this. The promotion of healthy lifestyles is yet another benefit of health education. Included in this is advice on how to live a healthy life, including what to eat and how to exercise.

The ability to make well-informed decisions regarding one’s health is another important skill that is encouraged through health education. It’s important to know how to find a good doctor, navigate your health insurance plan, and weigh all of your alternatives before settling on a course of treatment. The ability to convey this information to the intended audience successfully is the most important aspect of health education.

Health protection

Health protection is the measures taken to reduce the risk of disease and extend life expectancy. There are numerous approaches to protecting both individual and community health. Some examples include vaccinations, prompt medical attention for health problems, clean water and toilets, and the availability of healthy food. The five pillars of health safety are as follows:

  • Immunisation prevents both the spread of and exposure to infection, which can be prevented by vaccines. It’s one of the best interventions for public health today.
  • Population health can be tracked, and potential dangers can be identified by means of Surveillance Systems. Effective and rapid countermeasures to epidemics are made possible by them.
  • Whenever an outbreak of a contagious disease occurs, a Response Team is dispatched to stop it quickly.
  • By spreading information and encouraging healthy behaviours, health promotion and education programmes help more people take responsibility for their own health and the health of those around them.
  • Preparedness planning for public health emergencies ensures that communities are equipped to respond appropriately.

The provision of health protection spans numerous subfields of public policy, including but not limited to medical care, illness prevention, food regulation, and environmental protection. When it comes to public health, it takes a concerted effort from a variety of organisations to ensure the safety of everyone. Promoting and safeguarding the health of the general population is the main purpose of health protection. A wide range of efforts are involved, such as:

  • Encouraging and supporting the adoption of healthy lifestyles;
  • Preventing potential dangers to human health posed by the environment;
  • Dealing with urgent matters pertaining to public health;
  • Ensuring people can get the care they need;
  • Ensuring that all consumer goods, including foods, medicines, and other products, are free from health risks;
  • The avoidance and management of infectious diseases;

Disease prevention

Disease prevention is the practice of avoiding the spread of disease. Measures are taken to reduce the likelihood of getting infected, improve the health of people at risk of contracting them, and limit exposure to harmful substances. Disease prevention can be broken down into three distinct phases: primary, secondary, and tertiary.

  • The term “primary prevention” describes actions conducted before a disease ever shows signs of appearing. This can be accomplished by immunisation, modifying one’s lifestyle, and other means.
  • Early detection and treatment of disease are examples of secondary prevention. Methods that allow for early diagnosis and treatment are key to achieving this goal.
  • Efforts made to lessen the severity of a disease’s aftereffects and the incapacity it causes are known as “tertiary prevention.” Rehabilitative and supporting measures are examples of how this can be accomplished.

7. Explain approaches to health promotion

Health promotion strategies are predicated on the idea that a person’s sense of well-being is influenced by not just their immediate environment but also their wider social and economic context, including factors such as legislation and the state of the economy.

There are many different ways to improve health, including medical interventions, behavioural changes, education, empowerment, and social support.

Medical Approach

The prevention of disease and mortality is a primary focus of this approach. The purpose of this type of health promotion is to broaden the range of treatment options that can be used to treat sickness and reduce the incidence of deaths that are brought on by it.

The therapeutic strategy prioritises the treatment of illnesses over the prevention of complications and premature death. Affected people include those who are already sick or who have been exposed to an infectious agent. This approach prioritises treating sick people in order to alleviate their illness. The practitioner is accountable for facilitating patients’ adherence to their prescribed courses of treatment in accordance with the approach. Most people with illness may not have a deep understanding of their actions, yet they nonetheless listen to doctors and try to get well.

Behavioural Approach

The approach has been employed by a number of health promotion agencies. Public service announcements on health topics, for instance, urge viewers to give up tobacco, eat right, and get regular exercise. While this strategy may be implemented through public channels of communication, it is still focused on the individual. The behavioural approach is frequently a leading, expert technique that underlines the barrier between the general public, which requires information and guidance, and the health practitioners who are knowledgeable about how to promote health and well-being.

Even when the health practitioner providing the care is aware of the patient’s needs, there are situations in which the patient’s needs may be prioritised over those of the healthcare provider. The primary goal of the behavioural change method is to motivate people to adopt a healthy lifestyle by influencing their behaviours and beliefs. The recommendations of health professionals may include the importance of regular dental hygiene, the importance of food planning, and the importance of reducing excess weight. This approach highlights the importance of health practitioners making the most of every opportunity to encourage healthy lifestyle choices. Practitioners in the health care field have a duty to inform the public, but everyone has personal responsibility for their own well-being.

Educational Approach

Providing access to information and knowledge as well as teaching people how to apply it, are essential tenets of this educational approach for empowering individuals to make better health decisions. This method is different from the behavioural approach that was discussed earlier. Though it is designed with the intention of leading people to a particular decision, it is not intended to motivate any particular course of action. It is up to the individual to decide whether or not they feel comfortable with the decisions that have been made concerning their healthcare.

The goal of this educational approach is to empower people by giving them the knowledge they need to make informed decisions about their own health. The concepts being studied by the participant, as well as any barriers to or aids to learning, must be known by those who advocate for educational interventions.

Empowerment Approach

Empowerment, in the context of health promotion, could be seen as a process that gives people control over their own health and the factors that affect it. The main objective of an empowerment approach to health care is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills they need to take charge of their own health and make informed choices about their care, both in their personal lives and in the wider community. People’s ability to make decisions and solve problems, as well as their capacity for critical thought and action, are prioritised in this approach.

In this approach, the healthcare provider collaborates with the patient or group to determine what aspects of their surroundings and body require their attention and action. Decisions will then be made based on their opinion and understanding. The role of the health professional moderator is to guide the conversation. They aid individuals in recognising their issues and getting the resources they need to educate themselves and make positive changes. Improved health can only be achieved through the empowerment of individuals and communities. This approach suggests that both individuals and communities have the expertise, skills, and abilities they need to be able to brainstorm and make decisions. Furthermore, people have complete control over their own medical conditions.

8. Evaluate the effectiveness of different models of behaviour change in relation to health and well being.

The Health Belief Model allows for a detailed understanding of health-related behaviours and decision-making processes. Based on the premise that individuals can accurately assess risks and make informed decisions, this model is useful for self-reflection and developing healthier habits.

Predicting and explaining healthy habits can also be done with the help of the Social Learning Theory. The system is predicated on the idea that people pick up social cues from one another. Using this model, we can better comprehend and plan interventions to enhance people’s health-related behaviour learning.

The premise of the Theory of Reasoned Action is that individuals’ perspectives and values shape their decision-making processes. The model can be applied to the study of health beliefs and practises, as well as the development of interventions to improve these areas.

The health belief model’s efficacy has been repeatedly demonstrated over the years. All sorts of health-related actions, from proactive to reactive to the sick role, can be explained by the model. The model’s accessibility also makes it a favourite among academics and industry professionals.

The social learning theory is widely applied because it has been proven to be effective in changing people’s health-related behaviours. The ability to accurately predict health outcomes is a major advance made possible by the theory. It has also been shown that the theory helps direct interventions that aim to improve health-related behaviours.

It has been shown that many different health-related behaviours can be adequately explained by the theory of reasoned action, so it has gained widespread acceptance as a hypothesis. Furthermore, research has shown that using this concept to direct therapies to alter health-related behaviours is excellent.

All three of these theories are really effective at explaining how people act in ways that affect their health, and they can help guide interventions that aim to improve health and well-being.

Task 2 of 2

For this task you are asked to prepare a campaign report and support materials relating to a health promotion initiative of your choosing. You are required to:

1. Define the rationale of a health promotion project

Smoking is detrimental to our health because it raises the risk of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory illnesses, stroke, and other life-threatening conditions. Tobacco smoke contains toxins that are dangerous and make it more difficult for the body to heal any damage that has been done.

One of the best ways to improve one’s health is to quit smoking. It doesn’t matter how long someone has been a smoker or the age; quitting this habit can lead to great improvements in overall health and well-being. The risk of dying prematurely is reduced, and life expectancy is increased when smoking is stopped.

The objective of this project is to help smokers in my community live longer, healthier lives by raising awareness about the dangers of tobacco use. There are a lot of people in the community who are exposed to second-hand smoke, which is why this initiative is so important. The participants will learn about the health risks associated with smoking and the benefits of giving up the habit as part of this initiative.

With the hope of educating the next generation about the dangers of smoking at a young age, the project is aimed at people over the age of 13. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other organisations will aid in this effort. These groups include NHS Stop Smoking Service, Stopping Smoking, Action on Smoking and Health (ASH), Kick Ash, Take Down Tobacco, and many more. This campaign will use every tool at its disposal to spread its message of health and wellness to as many people as possible.

2. Seek approval/permission to carry out the project

Dear Mr Washington,

I am writing to request for funding and permission to conduct a health project highlighting the dangers of tobacco smoking and providing resources for people who want to quit. You probably already know that smoking is one of the major avoidable causes of death worldwide. We propose a health initiative geared toward reducing cigarette smoking and helping smokers kick the habit.

A financial investment, in addition to marketing and operational support, will be needed for this project. We anticipate a sizable payoff, not only in terms of the well-being of our staff and the local community but also in the form of favourable publicity for the organisation as a whole.

We hope that you will give our request some thought. Please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us if you have any inquiries or would like to have a more in-depth conversation about the project. I appreciate you giving me a moment of your time.

Yours faithfully,
Zendaya Crooks

3. Design materials for the project

This project will focus on the health risks associated with smoking as well as methods that can be used to assist individuals who are trying to kick the habit. The duration of the campaign is scheduled to be seven days. A seminar has been planned to put the finishing touches on the campaign, and each day will be held at a different location, such as the local care facilities in the community or the high schools.

We have formed a collaboration with the guidance counsellor at the high school in order to share knowledge related to the risks and consequences with the students. In addition, a website that is simple to access and designed to assist people who are prepared to quit smoking has been developed. Either a barcode or a link will get you to the site.

It has been decided to construct a mobile clinic in the form of a van, which will be made available in the neighbourhood for the duration of this project. Inside this clinic, we will have a therapist who is willing to conduct a one-on-one consultation with anyone who is interested in doing so. An electronic billboard mounted to the rear of a vehicle displays information such as a hotline number, a barcode, and the location of the service, as well as a brief video showing surgical procedures being performed on a smoker.

We hope that by the end of this project, many local smokers will re-evaluate their relationship with tobacco and seek help to finally put an end to the habit. Just a few of the helpful hints that will be provided on our materials are listed below:

  • If you feel the urge to smoke, try to divert your attention elsewhere. A few deep breaths or a few chews of gum could help;
  • Eliminating all tobacco products, including cigarettes, from your residence, vehicle, and place of employment;
  • Formulating an exit strategy; choosing a quit date and/or method is one way to go about this;
  • One strategy is to stay away from public areas where smoking is prevalent.
  • Telling loved ones you’ve decided to stop smoking and seeking their encouragement;
  • Incorporating a healthy diet and avoiding sugary snacks;
  • It’s important to keep yourself active and occupied;
  • Keeping away from drugs and alcohol;
  • To maintain a regular exercise routine;
  • Applauding oneself on the success through avoiding tobacco.

4. Carry out a health promotion project

An awareness campaign in the mobile clinic on Monday marked the beginning of the project and included an overview of the harmful consequences of smoking as well as straightforward approaches for finally quitting. In addition to the contact information for support, the visitors were given a guidebook with all the knowledge they would need to stop smoking cigarettes.

On Tuesday, the flyers were taken to community care facilities, where they were distributed to smoking care receivers. They were given some basic advice on how to stop smoking.

A number of high schools in the city were also reached, and students were warned about the harsh realities of smoking in the expectation that current smokers will give up the habit and those who are being coerced into smoking will stand firm against the temptation.

If they found the brochure helpful, they were also advised to give it to any of their smoking parents. For the duration of the campaign, the mobile clinic provided free consultations and therapy sessions to the local community at a predetermined location.

More than a hundred smokers attended our seminar at the community centre on the last day of the campaign, and we invited ex-smokers to share their stories with them. Attendees filled out registration forms and contact information like email. It was agreed that fortnightly notifications would be sent to them using this information. After a quick snack and the distribution of chewing gum and nicotine patches, the seminar came to a close.

5. Evaluate the effectiveness and impact of the project

The project’s overarching objective was to lower community smoking rates by raising awareness about tobacco’s negative health consequences. That aspect of the project was a success; the amount of people who smoke in the area has decreased because of this. One hundred people were randomly selected from the community, and it was discovered that smoking rates had dropped by 10%. The project has also contributed to a decrease in litter throughout the area.

However, not all of the campaign’s objectives have been met. In spite of the project’s best efforts, however, a sizable number of residents in the target area continue to indulge in tobacco use. In addition, the scope of work, which was to minimise the number of smokers in the neighbourhood, has not been met to the extent that was anticipated.

In any case, it was a positive development. In order to guarantee the project has a lasting effect on the neighbourhood, we will be conducting a follow-up procedure.


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