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5 – HSC CM2: Human Growth and Development

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1.1 Identify the life stages of human development.

Human development is the process of growth and change that occurs between birth and maturity. Human life stages are as follows:

Infancy: This is the first relevant stage of human development, which occurs between the ages of 0 and 2 years. Numerous physical significant events occur during this period as an infant acquires or gains authority over its own body.

During this stage, infants must rely on a person or others to meet the majority of their needs because they learn to trust others as their needs are met. Infants require protection in order to develop properly, both physically and emotionally.

Childhood: This is the stage that follows infancy, lasting between 3 and 10 years, during which children seek to experience and develop a sense of freedom. Children learn to make their own decisions and understand that all of their actions have consequences. A child must be guided as they begin to investigate their new ability and gain confidence in their decision.

Adolescence: The process continues in the next stage of human development, adolescence, which lasts between 11 to 17 years. This is when children begin to develop a sense of self and freedom.

During this stage, young men and women are fundamentally concerned with discovering their identity and making it known to the rest of the world around them. Adolescents must adjust to physical changes as a result of puberty.

Adult Early adulthood hood: This stage involves more challenges and important decisions about career, school, and personal lives. Physical development has reached its peak, and emotional growth is visible. This is a period of significant emotional development during which young adults choose the types of work they want to do, where they want to live, and whom they want to live with.

Middle adulthood: This is the phase at which adults begin to deal with the physical signs of ageing, such as wrinkles, grey hair, and so on. At this point, the body has gone past its apex stage of physical strength and is already experiencing a decline.

Late adulthood: Adults are nearing the end of their lives at this point. They look back on their lives and ponder them. Those who feel accomplished in their lives, whether through a prosperous family or a significant career, achieve a sense of satisfaction with which they can easily face ageing and death. On the other, those who did not accomplish much might have a sense of regret.

Other answers in the full document:

  • 1.2. Describe social, emotional, cognitive and physical developments within each life stage.
  • 2.1. Describe theories of human growth and development.
  • 3.1. Explain significant life events that can occur within each stage of human development.
  • 3.2. Analyse the impact that significant life events have on individuals.

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