Home » Assessments » Health and Social Care » Level 3 Diploma in Adult Care » Unit 87: Administer medication to individuals and monitor the effects

Unit 87: Administer medication to individuals and monitor the effects

Level: Level 3 Diploma

1.1 Identify current legislation, guidelines, policies and protocols relevant to the administration of medication

There are regulations, standards, approaches, and guidelines in place that outline tasks and efficient strategies that must be observed in order to ensure the correct delivery of medication to individuals while carefully and safely monitoring the reactions.

In the United Kingdom, medication is administered through a number of different routes, including orally, by injection, and by inhalation. There are also a number of guidelines and policies relevant to the administration of medication which has been developed over time. These include legislation such as the Medicines Act 1968, which covers licensing, sale, manufacture and supply of medicines; the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, which regulates and prevents the misuse of controlled drugs; and clinical guidelines issued by professional bodies such as NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), which provide advice on the best way to treat particular diseases or conditions, as well as national protocols put in place to ensure consistency between different healthcare providers.

In addition to statutes and guidelines, many hospitals have specific policies or protocols governing the administration of medications. For example, most hospitals have an admittance policy that dictates which prescription medications are allowed to be taken by patients who are admitted to the hospital. This policy may be based on a patient’s diagnosis or on the type of medication prescribed by the physician. Hospital administrators also frequently develop specific protocols for dispensing medication to patients in their care. These protocols typically include information about how and when medications should be administered, as well as instructions about which emergency room personnel should dispense a particular drug.

The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is the regulatory body for medicines in The United Kingdom. The MHRA has a set of regulations called the General Medical Council’s Good Practice Guidelines for Prescribing Drugs to Children. These guidelines are designed to help prescribers decide which drugs are appropriate for children, and they take into account age, weight, general health and any allergies that may be known.

Other relevant legislation includes the Human Rights Act of 1998, which protects individuals from discrimination based on their disability or age. This means that healthcare providers must always consider patients’ wishes when prescribing medication, regardless of whether or not they fall within one of the protected categories listed in the statute.

In addition, there are specific rules governing drug advertising that must be followed by all commercial operators in The United Kingdom (the UK Code of Broadcast Advertising). This code states that ads cannot promote drugs for uses other than those approved by UK health authorities; it also prohibits ads from making false claims about benefits or risks associated with a drug product. Finally, there is guidance issued by NHS England on how best to prescribe medications where mental ill-health is considered an underlying cause (i.e., mental illness is not just an incidental side-effect).

2.1 Describe common types of medication including their effects and potential side effects

There are many types of medication, and each has its own set of effects and side effects. Some common types of medication include painkillers, antidepressants, stimulants, anti-inflammatories, and mood stabilisers. Medications can have various benefits – from reducing pain to improving mental health – but they can also have serious side effects if not taken correctly. It’s essential to speak with your doctor about the best medications for your specific needs and keep track of any possible side effects so you can adjust your dosage as needed.

Antibiotics are a common medication used to treat various illnesses, including infections. Antibiotics kill the bacteria responsible for the infection, and they can be effective against a wide range of infections. However, antibiotics can also have serious side effects, such as allergic reactions and should not be taken without first checking with your doctor.

Painkillers are another common type of medication used to relieve pain. Painkillers fall into two main categories: opioid medications (such as morphine) and non-opioid medications (such as ibuprofen). Opioid medications are generally more effective at relieving pain than non-opioid medications, but they can also have side effects such as addiction and decreased respiratory function. It’s essential to speak with your doctor about the best drug for your specific needs before taking it – especially if you’re using it for long periods of time or in high doses.

Antidepressants help relieve symptoms associated with depression, including sadness, hopelessness, anxiety, lack of energy, and difficulty concentrating. Antidepressants come in different forms (e .g., pills, injections, or creams )and may require regular dosage adjustment depending on individual needs. Some antidepressants may also cause side effects, but these types tend to be milder than those caused by opioids or other medicines.

Sedatives are drugs that help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation. Sedatives often treat conditions such as sleep problems or anxiety disorders. They work by slowing down the brain’s activity, which can lead to calmness and relaxation. However, sedatives can also have side effects – such as decreased heart rate and impaired motor skills – so it’s important to take them only with supervision from your doctor.

Stimulants are medications that increase energy levels and improve moods. Stimulants need to be taken regularly for their benefits to persist. Some stimulants may cause side effects if taken in high doses or for prolonged periods of time, such as increased heart rate, jitteriness, and aggression. Also, stimulants can lead to addiction if taken in excess.

2.2 Identify medication which demands specific physiological measurements.

If a medication requires specific physiological measurements to be taken before or after administration, it is likely a drug which requires monitoring by a healthcare professional. In some cases, these measurements may be required for safety reasons or to optimise the drug’s effectiveness. This includes drugs which are used to treat diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes.

For example, metformin (Glucophage) is a diabetes medication which requires blood sugar measurements before and after administration. This is in order to ensure that the dosage given is appropriate and does not lead to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). When administered by a healthcare professional, other physiological measurements may also be taken, such as heart rate and blood pressure.

Another example is levothyroxine (Synthroid), a medication used to treat hypothyroidism. Before and after administration, the patient’s thyroid hormone levels may need to be measured in order to ensure proper dosage is given. In a situation where levothyroxine is taken by a patient without consulting with a healthcare professional, their thyroid levels may not be accurately measured, and the medication may not be effective.

It is important to note that not all medications which require specific physiological measurements will be listed as such on the medication’s label. In some cases, a healthcare professional may need to order these tests from a laboratory or consult with the patient’s doctor in order to properly monitor and administer the drug.

2.3 Describe the common adverse reactions to medication, how each can be recognised and the appropriate action(s) required.

The most common side effects of medications are stomach pain, drowsiness, diarrhoea and vomiting. If any of these effects occur while a patient is taking their medication, they should report it to their doctor immediately. It is also important to note that many medications can interact with other drugs a person is taking, so it is important to talk with the doctor about all the medicines a patient takes. Sometimes simple adjustments can be made to ensure each drug does not interact adversely with another. In some cases, though (for example, an allergic reaction), it may be necessary for the patient to stop taking all medication temporarily and see if this resolves the problem.

There are a few other things that patients should be aware of. For example, some medications can increase the risk for blood clots, so it is important to monitor for any sign or symptom of a clot (such as chest pain) and contact their doctor immediately if this occurs. Additionally, some medications can interact with other drugs that patients take for mental health conditions (such as antidepressants), so it is important to speak with their doctor about all the medications they are taking and make any necessary adjustments. Not every side effect of the medication will occur in every patient; while most adverse reactions are mild, there may be rare cases that are more severe. If an adverse reaction occurs while a patient is taking their medication and seems particularly concerning or dangerous, they should report it to their doctor right away.

Patients should also be aware of ways to prevent them from occurring in the first place. For instance, it is vital to take all medications as prescribed by the doctor and not to skip doses or try to make changes to the medication without consulting with their doctor. Patients can also reduce their risk for adverse reactions by eating a balanced diet and drinking plenty of fluids while taking medications. And finally, patients should always ask their doctor if there is anything they should do in case of an adverse reaction (such as stop taking the medication entirely).

2.4 Explain the different routes of medicine administration

There are a variety of ways medicine is administered to patients. One standard route is through the mouth, which can include swallowing pills or liquids, taking medications in food or drink, and using capsules or tablets. In addition to orally ingested medicines, other routes of administration include injection (into a vein), inhalation (through the nose), and application to the skin. Some medicines must be taken regularly over an extended period of time, so another type of delivery system may be needed, such as an injection pump that continuously administers a fixed dose over time.

In addition to standard routes of administration, some patients require specific treatments that can only be delivered through a certain type of delivery system. Intravenous (through a vein) therapies need to be administered by a medical professional because they can have serious side effects if not done correctly. An example is anti-cancer drugs delivered intravenously. These treatments are very powerful and can cause serious side effects if not done correctly, so it is important that a medical professional supervise the treatment to ensure safety for patients.

There are some patients who do not require medication to be administered via a particular route. Some individuals, for instance, consume supplements such as vitamins and minerals by ingesting capsules or tablets. Not all medications are available in every form of administration. Some over-the-counter medications, for instance, must be taken with food to prevent stomach upset, whereas others can be taken without any additional ingredients.

Patients can also self-administer medicines by using prescription or over-the-counter medications as prescribed. And finally, patients can use complementary and alternative therapies (CAM) such as acupuncture and chiropractic treatments to improve their health. However, there is limited research on the efficacy of CAM for treating medical conditions, so care must be taken when selecting CAM for treatment.

3.1 Depending on the route of drug administration, there are different types of materials and equipment used for medication.

Oral route: This route of administration requires materials and equipment for chewing, swallowing and drinking. These items include a medication container, tablets or capsules that must be crushed or ground up to form small pieces that can be absorbed through the stomach into the bloodstream, water to drink if necessary to prevent nausea and vomiting, a napkin to blot any spills from food or beverage intake during meals (to avoid contacting medications with your hands), spoon for stirring medications if needed.

Injectable route: This type of administration requires needles, syringes (for liquid medicine), injection devices such as pens used by children who cannot swallow pills safely enough on their own (called pediatric Pens) and gloves in order to prevent exposure to bloodborne pathogens like hepatitis C. Other supplies might include patient information cards listing dosage instructions; alcohol wipes for cleaning skin before injections; a needle disposal box; identification bracelet bearing contact information in case of emergency medical treatment beyond hospital discharge boundaries.

Inhalation route: This type of administration requires materials and equipment to help the patient breathe in the medication. These items might include an inhaler, spacer device or mask to ensure a tight seal around the mouth and nose while breathing in air containing medication, a nebulizer (a machine that atomizes medication into a fine mist) to disperse the medication directly into the lungs, and tubing and valves for delivering air to the patient’s breathing passages.

Topical route: This type of administration requires materials and equipment used for applying medications topically such as creams, ointments or patches. These items might include an application device like a compressing applicator or gloves for protecting hands from contamination; storage containers for medicines; adhesive bandages or tapes in various sizes and shapes suited specifically for treating skin conditions like burns, cuts, eczema etc.; waterless hand sanitiser.

3.2 Identify the required information from prescriptions/medication administration charts.

In order to avoid medication errors, the prescriber must be familiar with each patient’s medication history. This includes understanding what medications have been prescribed and how often they are to be taken. Additionally, specific instructions on how to properly administer the medication(s) should also be included in the chart. There are certain information that must be included on the chart for each patient, including:

  • Patient’s identity: The patient’s name must be included on the chart.
  • Prescription number: The prescription must be listed with its corresponding drug name and dosage.
  • Date of issuance: The date the prescription was issued is also required.
  • Dose instructions: Specific instructions for how to properly administer the medication should be included in this section. These include how often to take it, what food or drink to avoid, and whether any other medications need to be stopped before taking this one.
  • Route of administration: This should include information on how the medication should be taken, such as orally or via injection.
  • Special instructions: If any special instructions need to be followed when taking this medication, they must be noted here.
  • Name of the prescriber: The prescriber’s name must also be included on this chart.

This information ensures that the patient is taking their medication in the correct way and that any potential side effects are noted. If there are any questions about a particular prescription, it is best to consult a health professional.

4.2 Explain ways to ensure the appropriate timing of medication.

There are many ways to ensure that the appropriate timing of medication is achieved. The most common way to do this is by consulting a doctor or pharmacist about the best time to take medications. Other methods include using a pill timer, checking the expiry date on medications, and watching for changes in symptoms associated with taking medications at specific times of the day or during specific periods of the month.

It is important to keep track of when medications were last taken, as well as the date and time of any refills. This will help ensure that the medication is taken at the correct time and in accordance with any refill instructions. It is also important to be aware of any potential side effects that may occur as a result of taking medications at the wrong time. If such side effects are experienced, it is important to contact a doctor immediately.

Furthermore, it is always advisable to consult with a doctor if there are any concerns about the appropriateness of taking medication. A doctor can help identify any potential side effects or other problems that may be related to taking medications at the wrong time and may also provide advice on how to best manage these problems.

If medication is not taken on time, it may lead to the development of serious side effects or worsening of the underlying condition. Therefore, it is crucial to pay close attention to the instructions that come with each medication and to consult a doctor if there are any questions or concerns about taking it.

5.3 Describe how to report any immediate problems with the administration.

If you experience any problems with the administration of a medication, you should immediately report it to your supervisor or doctor. In most cases, this will ensure that corrective action is taken as soon as possible. Following are some specific steps that you can take when administering medications:

If there is an irregularity in the dosage given, for example, if someone takes more than was prescribed or less than was recommended, notify your supervisor right away so they can make adjustments to the dosing schedule. This could mean increasing the dose given once daily or dividing a single dose into two smaller doses at various intervals throughout the day to correct for under-dosage and over-dosage, respectively.

If someone experiences side effects from their medication – such as feeling nauseated or vomiting – do not hesitate to tell them about these symptoms and what steps they should take to reduce their intensity (e.g., eating light meals before taking medications). If nausea persists despite appropriate dietary measures being taken, then doctors may prescribe anti-nausea drugs such as Phenergan (Fenugreek), which must be administered strictly in accordance with prescription instructions provided by healthcare professionals because incorrect use could result in serious complications like prolonged vomiting and dehydration etc. Side effects due to improper drug usage also include restlessness, irritability, insomnia and hallucinations.

If you notice any redness or swelling at the site of injection (especially if there is pain), contact your supervisor right away as this could indicate a problem with the medication’s delivery system such as an infection or a foreign object caught in the needle. If these symptoms persist even after repeated attempts to deliver the medication have been made, then it may be necessary to discontinue administration until further instructions can be obtained from healthcare professionals.

In a case where a patient refuses to take their medication, do not force them to comply. Instead, try to communicate with the patient and see if there is anything that can be done to change their mind (e.g., having someone else administer the medication for them). If this strategy fails, then doctors may prescribe psychiatric counselling to help the patient deal with any psychological issues that are contributing towards non-compliance.

5.5 Explain why it may be necessary to confirm that the individual actually takes the medication and does not pass the medication to others.

The individual must take the medication themselves and not give it to others for it to be effective. It is important that the individual takes the medication as prescribed by their doctor so that they receive the most benefit from it. If an individual does not take their medications as prescribed, then they may not get the full benefits of them which could potentially lead to more serious health problems.

If an individual does pass the medication to others, it could lead to dangerous side effects for those who take the medication and for those who receive it. By confirming that the individual is actually taking their medications and not giving them to others, health officials can ensure that everyone is getting the most benefit from their prescribed medications.

Ensuring that everyone is taking their medication as prescribed can potentially reduce the number of people who are diagnosed with drug addiction. If everyone follows their doctor’s orders and takes their medications as directed, then it may help to reduce the number of people who are addicted to drugs.

By confirming that the individual is taking their medications, health officials can also monitor how well the medication is working. If an individual stops taking their medications as prescribed, then it could potentially lead to more severe health problems. By monitoring how well the medication is working and confirming that individuals are still taking them, service providers can help to ensure that patients are getting the most out of their treatment plan.

5.6 Describe how to dispose of out-of-date and part-used medications in accordance with legal and organisational requirements.

The United Kingdom is a country with regulations in place governing how and when medications can be disposed of. There are specific requirements for different types of medication, depending on their toxicity level.

Out-of-date and part-used medications should not be disposed of illegally or without first checking to see if they have been prescribed by a doctor and following the relevant disposal procedures. Organisations such as pharmacies may dispose of out-of-date and part-used medicines through special collections programmes, while some local councils offer free recycling services for specific medication categories.

Wherever possible, it is essential to take stock of unused medications before disposing of them so that they can be recycled or reused instead of being wastefully thrown away. This can help to avoid potential health and environmental hazards associated with drug disposal. In addition, patients should be aware of the relevant disposal procedures and make use of free resources where available to reduce environmental waste.

Organisational policies and guidelines surrounding the disposal of medications should be reviewed on a regular basis in order to ensure that all relevant regulations are followed. This is especially important when it comes to newly licensed medications, which may require additional safety precautions during disposal. Patients should also be aware of any changes that might impact the way their medication can be disposed of and consult with their doctor if necessary.


  • Catania, Patrick N. “Storing Parenteral Medication at Home.” Home Care Provider, vol. 2, no. 6, Elsevier BV, Dec. 1997, pp. 292–94. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1084-628x(97)90092-7.
  • “Administration of Medicine in Care Homes.” GOV.UK, 21 Apr. 2016, www.gov.uk/government/publications/administration-of-medicine-in-care-homes.
  • Touchard, Barbara Mollere, and Kim Berthelot. “Nursing and Occupational Therapy Ensure Appropriate Medication Administration.” Home Healthcare Nurse: The Journal for the Home Care and Hospice Professional, vol. 17, no. 1, Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), Jan. 1999, pp. 45–51. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1097/00004045-199901000-00008.
  • Babu, Dr. Binu. “Administration of Medications.” Administration of Medications, 1 Mar. 2001, www.slideshare.net/binuenchappanal/administration-of-medications-124684121.
  • “Medicine Management at Home – Medication Support | Helping Hands.” Helping Hands Home Care, www.helpinghandshomecare.co.uk/home-care-services/medication-management. Accessed 22 Nov. 2022.
  • Nicholson, Emerentia C., and Anneleen Damons. “Linking the Processes of Medication Administration to Medication Errors in the Elderly.” Linking the Processes of Medication Administration to Medication Errors in the Elderly, www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2071-97362022000100003. Accessed 22 Nov. 2022.
  • “Medication Use Among Older Adults in a Home Care Setting.” Home Healthcare Nurse, vol. 28, no. 1, Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health), Jan. 2010, pp. 21–23. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nhh.0000366792.86776.72.
  • Bower, Rachel, et al. “Interruptions and Medication Administration in Critical Care.” Nursing in Critical Care, vol. 20, no. 4, Wiley, June 2015, pp. 183–95. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1111/nicc.12185.
  • Karnehed, Sara, et al. “Nurses’ Perspectives on an Electronic Medication Administration Record in Home Health Care: Qualitative Interview Study.” JMIR Nursing, vol. 5, no. 1, JMIR Publications Inc., Apr. 2022, p. e35363. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.2196/35363.
  • Aufseeser-Weiss, Miriam R., and Deborah Anne Ondeck. “Medication Use Risk Management: Hospital Meets Home Care.” Home Health Care Management & Practice, vol. 12, no. 2, SAGE Publications, Feb. 2000, pp. 5–10. Crossref, https://doi.org/10.1177/108482230001200203.

Related Assessments

Related Papers

Beat AI detection with ease.

Rewrite or generate new answers that beat AI detection. Register now and get 3,000 AI tokens for free.

Or use coupon NEWUSER20 to get 20% off on any plan.