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11 – HSC CM2: Human Growth and Development

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1.1 Identify the life stages of human development.

The stages of human development include:

  • Infancy (0-2)
  • Childhood (3-10)
  • Adolescence (11-17)
  • Early adulthood(18-29)
  • Middle adulthood(30-60)
  • Late adulthood(60 and above)


Babies learn to do things like lift their heads and turn over as they progress and develop physically. A baby at this age needs help from caregivers to do even the most basic things, like raising their head. Attachment and bonding with caregivers are two examples of the social and emotional skills they begin to acquire at this time. They should have learned to control their bodies and begun to form words by the time they reach the end of their first year.


Children’s physical, emotional, and social maturation continues throughout childhood. They develop motor skills, language, and cognition. The bonds they form with loved ones are strengthened as well.


Adolescents experience profound changes in their bodies and minds. They might begin questioning established norms and rebelling against established authorities. In addition, they begin to experience sexual desire and curiosity.

Early adulthood

At this stage of life, young adults begin to carve out lives for themselves. They may leave home to pursue education, work, or romantic connections.

Middle adulthood

In middle adulthood, most people find their footing regarding their professional lives, personal lives, and the communities they live in. Likewise, they may go through significant life transitions like separation or bereavement.

Late adulthood

Retirement and deteriorating bodily and mental health are expected outcomes of ageing. They could also have to deal with the death of loved ones and the realisation that they, too, will eventually die.

Other answers in the full document:

  • 1.2. Describe social, emotional, cognitive and physical developments within each life stage.
  • 2.1. Describe theories of human growth and development.
  • 3.1. Explain significant life events that can occur within each stage of human development.
  • 3.2. Analyse the impact that significant life events have on individuals.

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