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4 – DHS13 – Understand Mental Health Problems

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1.1 Describe the following types of mental ill health according to the psychiatric (DSM/ICD) classification system:

  • Mood Disorders
  • Personality Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Psychotic disorders
  • Substance-related disorders
  • Eating disorders
  • Cognitive disorders

An individual’s emotional, social, or cognitive limitations are referred to as mental health problems. These issues typically arise as a result of a variety of factors, but if they are properly managed by qualified professionals, the severity and duration may be minimal. Mental health issues can be treated and managed with a high chance of success over time or with changes in the person’s circumstances, but this can later turn into a mental illness if the issues are left untreated for an extended period of time or if they worsen.

(1.a) Mood disorders: Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders that are characterised by an abnormal or distorted mood. This can include feeling excessively sad, hopeless, or irritable, as well as experiencing abnormal changes in energy and behaviour. Mood disorders can have a significant impact on a person’s daily life and can interfere with their ability to work, socialise, and maintain relationships. Some common types of mood disorders include depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymic disorder. Symptoms of mood disorders can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the disorder, but may include changes in appetite and sleep patterns, difficulty concentrating, and feelings of worthlessness or guilt. Treatment for mood disorders often involves a combination of medication and talk therapy.

(1b) Personality Disorder: Here, an individual’s trajectory of thinking and behaviour completely diverges from that of other members of society. People who struggle with this type of disorder often exhibit rigid and extreme behavioural traits that can have a negative impact on them personally, at work or school, and can strain their relationships with others in society. People who struggle with this disorder frequently display eccentric and strange behaviours, struggle with their sense of self, and have trouble interacting with others in society. Examples include the Schizoid character.

(1c) Anxiety disorder:  When someone has extreme apprehension or worries excessively about potential future events, they are said to have an anxiety disorder. Precursors to this feeling, which can be quite overwhelming, include irregular sleep patterns and frequent panic attacks. Anxiety disorders like generalised anxiety disorder, PTSD, and social anxiety are some examples of this (GAD).

(1d) Psychotic disorders: These are mental illnesses characterised by a complete or partial loss of touch with reality, strange perception, and strange thinking. Additionally, it entails having distorted awareness and thought. Short-term psychotic episodes or lifelong psychotic disorders are both possible. The most typical signs of these are hallucinations and a sense of being delusional (a series of wrongs that the person believes to be true) (a false perception usually of hearing or feeling or false presence). The psychotic disorder schizophrenia is an example.

(1e) Substance-Related disorders: The most common cause of this disorder is dependence on or abuse of alcohol, nicotine, or drugs.

These abusive materials may or may not be unlawful. In addition to withdrawal symptoms and intoxication, which are typically brought on by substance abuse, other disorders like dementia, anxiety, mood disorders, psychosis, and anxiety are also classified as substance-related disorders.

(1f) Eating disorder: Eating disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterised by abnormal eating behaviours and distorted thoughts and perceptions about food and body weight. These disorders often result in significant distress and impairments in daily functioning. Some common types of eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Individuals with eating disorders may restrict their food intake, compulsively eat and then purge, or engage in other unhealthy eating behaviours. These behaviours can lead to serious health complications and can even be fatal if left untreated.

(1g) cognitive disorder: Individuals with these disorders frequently struggle to comprehend and understand information correctly. They typically make it harder to learn, remember information, and solve problems correctly. Amnesia and dementia are two examples.

Other answers in the full document:

  • 1.2 Explain the key strengths and limitations of the psychiatric classification system
  • 1.3 Explain alternative frameworks for understanding mental distress
  • 1.4 Explain indicators of mental ill health 2.1 Explain how individuals experience discrimination
  • 2.2 Explain the effects mental ill health may have on an individual
  • 2.3 Explain the effects mental ill health may have on those in the individual’s familial, social or work network
  • 2.4 Explain how to intervene to promote an individual’s mental health and well-Being

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