Unit 9: Inclusive Practice

Level: Level 5 Diploma
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Task 1

a) Summarise the impact of personal, social and cultural factors impact on learning.

Personal, social, and cultural elements all have a significant impact on a person’s learning and academic achievement. Understanding these characteristics and their interactions is critical for developing an inclusive and supportive learning environment that meets the different needs of all students.

Personal attributes and attitudes of the learner are examples of personal factors. A student’s motivation and self-esteem, for example, might have a significant impact on their capacity to participate in and continue with learning (Van Dinther, Dochy, & Segers, 2011). A motivated and self-confident learner is more likely to take the initiative to learn new things, persevere through hurdles, and conquer obstacles. Additionally, a student’s prior knowledge, cognitive ability, and learning style can all have an impact on their academic achievement (Khurshid, 2014). A visual learner, for example, may benefit from utilising graphic organisers or diagrams to study, whereas an auditory learner may benefit from using recordings or lectures to study.

Struggling with poor health or a disability can affect a student’s ability to attend school, stay focused in class, and retain information (Khurshid, 2014). Chronic health conditions, such as asthma or diabetes, can also impact students’ overall well-being and ability to participate in activities and focus in class. Furthermore, students who are dealing with mental health issues such as depression or anxiety may have difficulty in learning and developing their full academic potential.

The influence of family, peers, and the community are examples of social factors. In terms of a student’s ability to study and function academically, family is especially significant(Drennan, Kennedy, & Pisarski, 2005). For students to set goals, maintain attention, and perform well in school, family expectations, support, and encouragement are essential. Parents that put a lot of effort into their children’s education by reading to them frequently, giving them access to educational materials, or keeping track of their homework and academic achievement are more likely to produce successful children (Stafford, Lundstedt, & Lynn, 1984). Conversely, students from underprivileged families may have additional difficulties, such as poverty, which might make it harder for them to achieve academically. These students may experience difficulties with access to educational resources, food instability, subpar housing, and a lack of transportation—factors that restrict their ability to learn and perform academically.

A student’s learning and academic performance are significantly influenced by their peers. Academic performance is typically higher among pupils who have supportive peer groups than among those who do not. Peers can offer a sense of community, motivation and support, as well as chances to practise and apply new information and abilities. Furthermore, students who are surrounded by a varied set of peers are more likely to be exposed to other viewpoints, ideas, and experiences that can deepen their awareness of and respect for the world around them.

Cultural influences, such as values and beliefs, are examples of cultural factors that can affect learning. Beliefs about the importance of education or a student’s self-efficacy may be influenced by their family’s culture (Van Dinther et al., 2011). Furthermore, school policies might favour certain cultures over others—a phenomenon referred to as cultural bias (Linan-Thompson, 2013). If students do not feel represented in the classroom environment or curriculum, then they may struggle with developing confidence and enthusiasm for learning. Therefore, it is important for educators to create an inclusive environment that reflects all cultures so that every student feels welcomed and respected in class.

It is essential that educators understand and take these factors into consideration in order to create a supportive and inclusive learning environment that addresses the diverse needs of all students. This requires a holistic and multi-faceted approach that addresses not only the academic needs of students but also their emotional, social, and physical well-being.

b) Critically evaluate the policy and regulatory frameworks relating to inclusive practice.

The policy and regulatory frameworks relating to inclusive practice in the UK education sector have evolved over the past decades with various advances, however, they remain far from perfect. Inclusion is an educational approach that seeks to ensure every child has access to a meaningful education regardless of background or ability; it covers areas such as special educational needs (SEN), disability provision, and cultural diversity. The overall framework that encompasses all these aspects within UK schools falls within the Children Act 1989 & 2004, the Education Act 2002, and the Equality Act 2010.

The Children’s Act (1989 & 2004) provides guidance on how children should be protected from abuse and neglect and outlines what processes local authorities must use if it becomes necessary for them to intervene on behalf of those at risk, including providing school places for ‘looked after’ students. This legislation was updated in 2004 following “Every Child Matters”, a report commissioned by the government focusing on improving standards across early years settings, primary schooling, secondary sectors, etc. These measures include introducing a wider range of strategies to support those with special educational needs, reducing truancy rates, and increasing access to extra-curricular activities.

The Equality Act (2010), which replaced the Disability Discrimination Acts 1995/2005, focuses on providing protection against unfair treatment for individuals who possess certain ‘protected characteristics’ – this includes; age, sex, or race, as well as disability. This legislation also gives disabled children the right to have reasonable adjustments made in order to ensure they can fully engage in classroom activities – such as ramped school entrances or handrails along corridors, etc. It is designed so schools cannot discriminate based on these factors when it comes to allocating places and providing additional assistance, etc. However, there have been some issues with the interpretation of the law leading to confusion among practitioners.

The Education Act (2002) has also helped to provide guidance and frameworks for schools in terms of promoting inclusion. It includes a requirement that every school must set up a “special educational needs coordinator” (SENCO), who is responsible for assessing, diagnosing, and arranging support services where necessary. However, this has caused problems due to difficulty in recruiting enough qualified SENCOs at the primary level as well as financial pressures brought about by austerity measures.

It should be noted that while the Education Act does not explicitly cover inclusive practice, it does help guide schools towards equal access to education by removing barriers such as language or cultural differences, which could impede understanding amongst learners from different backgrounds (Machin & Vignoles, 2006). Similarly, looking at ‘disadvantaged pupils’, there have been efforts made specifically aimed at closing any gaps between those from wealthier/higher-performing areas compared to lower-performing areas.

On paper, the policy and regulatory frameworks look robust enough. However, improvements are still required, particularly regarding resources, given the problems with recruiting qualified SENCOs and further pressures on budgets due to austerity measures set out by the government, causing delays in implementing effective provisions necessary for vulnerable groups, especially younger learners. (Glennerster, 2002)

Also, with the increasing diversity of backgrounds among UK pupils due to immigration, there is a need for further flexibility within existing policies so that all children have access to education and learning opportunities regardless of ethnicity or cultural background (Machin & Vignoles, 2006). This would require an emphasis on developing culturally-sensitive teaching methods that encompass learners from different walks of life, as well as improving accessibility in terms of physical and communication needs (Brennan & Ritters, 2003).

The UK’s policy and regulatory frameworks relating to inclusive practice have seen marked improvements over recent years, however, there are still areas where more work is needed if a truly equitable education system is to be realised. There needs to be increased investment in SEN provision at the grassroots level, which will provide greater opportunities for children with disabilities while ensuring legal requirements laid out in the Equality Act 2010 are met by all schools in order to ensure no discrimination against specific protected characteristics.

c) Review the key features and benefits of an inclusive learning environment.

All students should feel accepted, respected, and valued in an inclusive learning environment. An inclusive classroom fosters tolerance and knowledge of diversity and provides all students with a secure and encouraging atmosphere. An inclusive learning environment has a number of important qualities and advantages, such as:

Diversity and cultural sensitivity: All students’ varied backgrounds, cultures, and viewpoints are valued and respected in an inclusive learning environment. The distinctive personalities, experiences, and contributions of each student in the classroom should be acknowledged and celebrated. Empathy, understanding, and mutual respect can all be fostered by having an awareness of diversity.

Equity and fairness: All students, regardless of background or identity, have equal access to educational resources and opportunities. Because of their race, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, language, aptitude, or any other attribute, students shouldn’t be treated differently. Fair evaluation procedures, equitable access to opportunities and resources, and equitable treatment of teachers and staff are all ways to accomplish this.

Active engagement and participation: All students are encouraged to participate actively in class and are provided with the assistance they need to do so. This includes giving students the freedom to express themselves, offer criticism, pose questions, and exchange ideas. By providing constructive criticism, establishing a secure learning environment, and promoting a healthy classroom culture, teachers and staff can build an inclusive learning environment.

Positive classroom climate: Mutual regard, trust, and open communication are characteristics of a positive classroom environment. Promoting a comfortable, encouraging environment where all children feel free to speak up, express their ideas, and ask questions can help create a pleasant learning environment. Students are more likely to participate in class, have thoughtful discussions, and finish tasks when they feel respected and valued.

Accommodations: Resources and accommodations are made available to students with special learning needs, disabilities, and a variety of learning styles. Making modifications to instructional methods, assessments, or the learning environment, as well as offering specific tools or assistive technology, are all examples of accommodations. To guarantee that each student can participate and interact fully in class, teachers might develop an individualised education programme in collaboration with the student and the school’s support services.

Flexibility and responsiveness: Teachers and staff are able to adapt to the changing demands of students. Students’ requirements can change over time, so it’s critical for teachers to be receptive to these changes and be prepared to modify their teaching methods as necessary. This could entail adopting alternative teaching methods, different teaching resources, or different classroom management strategies.

The benefits of an inclusive learning environment include increased academic achievement, improved social-emotional well-being, and greater success in life. In inclusive classrooms, students are more likely to develop positive relationships with their peers, have higher levels of self-esteem, and feel more connected to the school community. They also have better chances to have opportunities to interact with a diverse group of classmates, as well as develop their problem-solving and critical thinking skills in a safe and supportive environment. Moreover, inclusive classrooms can also foster a culture of empathy and understanding among the students, leading to a more accepting, cohesive, and peaceful learning environment.

d) For each of the factors listed in Part A, provide an example from your own observations within a learning environment to support your explanation.

As a tutor, I have had the opportunity to work with a wide range of students, each with their own unique set of strengths and weaknesses. One student, in particular, stood out to me as being particularly motivated and self-confident. This student was able to take the initiative in her learning, which meant that she was always eager to ask questions, persist when faced with challenging concepts or topics and accept feedback without feeling discouraged. This positive attitude towards learning enabled her to make steady progress throughout our tutoring sessions together.

I have also come across students from underprivileged home situations who face significant barriers to their learning. One student in particular, whom I had the pleasure of working with, struggled with access to educational resources or technology that were needed for effective learning outside of the classroom setting. This was due to financial reasons, which ultimately limited their ability to learn outside of school hours and affected their overall progress.

Throughout my teaching experiences, I have observed how cultural background can significantly impact a student’s understanding of certain topics within a class. For example, during one lesson, I noticed that some international students found it more difficult than other native English-speaking students to understand key vocabulary related to detailed healthcare terminologies. This was likely due to cultural differences and a lack of familiarity with the subject matter. This highlights the importance of being aware of cultural differences and making necessary adjustments in order to provide an inclusive and equitable learning environment for all students.

e) Summarise the policy and regulatory frameworks that are used within your teaching practice setting.

As a teacher in the UK, my teaching practice is guided by a number of policy and regulatory frameworks, which are designed to ensure that students receive a high-quality education that is inclusive, safe, and equitable.

The National Curriculum sets out the knowledge, skills, and understanding that students should be taught in schools across the country. The curriculum is statutory and is designed to provide a framework for what should be taught; however, it provides schools with the flexibility to adapt it to the need of their students and also to engage with the community and the society in which they are based.

The Education Act (2002) lays out the legal framework that governs the education system in England and Wales. It defines the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders in the education system, including teachers, schools, local authorities, and the government. It also outlines the rights of students and their parents or guardians and the provision of special educational needs and disabilities.

The Ofsted inspection framework is used to evaluate the quality of education provided by schools, including teaching quality, leadership, management, and the well-being of students. Schools are inspected by Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills), which is an independent body in charge of inspecting and regulating schools, daycare and other educational services in England. This is important as it ensures that there is a transparent evaluation process and that schools are held accountable for their performance.

The Equality Act 2010 is a regulatory framework that ensures that all students are treated fairly and not discriminated against based on characteristics such as race, gender, religion, or disability. This law applies to all schools and all teachers, and it requires them to provide a learning environment in which all students are treated with respect and where students are not unfairly disadvantaged because of their background.

In addition, to promote equality, diversity, and inclusion, the Special Educational Needs and Disability Code of Practice (SEND CoP) outlines the statutory framework for identifying, assessing, and providing support to students with special educational needs or disabilities. The code requires schools to make reasonable adjustments to ensure that all children can access an education appropriate for their individual needs.

Our organisational policy also provides guidance for teachers on how to create a safe and supportive learning environment, promote positive behaviour management, ensure that students are not unfairly discriminated against based on their background or identity, and support the individual needs of all students. This policy also outlines our commitment to safeguarding individuals from harm by providing effective systems for identifying potential risks in the school setting.

Prevent Duty is a legal obligation that requires schools to have measures in place to prevent radicalisation and extremism. This includes creating a safe environment in which students can express their views freely, without fear of persecution or discrimination, and creating a culture of respect in which all students are valued and treated with respect.

The Data Protection Act 2018 is a regulatory framework that governs the use of personal data and ensures that student data is collected, stored, and processed in a way that is compliant with the law. This is crucial in maintaining the privacy, security and rights of students; it also ensures that their data is not misused or mishandled and that the information is only used for the purpose for which it was collected.

As a teacher, I am responsible for ensuring that my teaching practice is aligned with these policy and regulatory frameworks, which aim to provide a high-quality education for all students, regardless of their background, by promoting fairness, safety and inclusivity while also ensuring that the student’s rights and privacy are protected.

Task 2

a) Review the impact of different cognitive, physical, and sensory abilities on learning.

Cognitive abilities affect learning by allowing an individual to process, store, and recall information. Cognitive abilities such as working memory, processing speed, executive functioning skills (planning and problem-solving), attentional control, language understanding/comprehension, and reasoning are all necessary for successful academic performance (Higbee et al., 1991). Individuals with cognitive impairments, such as those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or developmental disorders like dyslexia, may have difficulty with attention and memory, which can make it harder for them to learn new information (Shimizu et al., 2014). However, with the right accommodations and support, such as extra time for tests or the use of assistive technology, these individuals can still be successful learners (Chaffin et al., 2005).

Physical abilities have a large impact on learning due to the need for physical health to maintain mental alertness when studying or engaging with educational material (Fleishman, 1972). Physical abilities are typically linked to fine motor skills and gross motor control, which aid in completing activities related to learning, such as writing, drawing, or carrying out physical activities. For instance, a student with poor coordination might have difficulty completing tasks requiring precise hand-eye movements (such as typing), which can lead to lower grades on tests involving keyboarding techniques. Furthermore, physical health impacts learning by influencing how motivated an individual is to learn new information; if a person feels fatigued due to a physical impairment, they will be less likely to engage in their studies. In order for individuals with physical disabilities to succeed in the classroom, accommodations may need to be made, such as providing ramps and lifts so that buildings are more accessible or extra breaks during tests/quizzes if necessary.

Sensory abilities refer specifically to perceiving auditory information via hearing, visual stimulus through sight, tactile stimulation through touch, as well as kinaesthetic feedback via the body’s proprioception and muscle memory. The ability to perceive sensory information is critical for learning as it can be used to give feedback on tasks, which allows for improvement and comprehension of topics being presented in the classroom or other educational settings (Shimizu et al., 2014). For example, those who are deaf may have difficulty understanding spoken language, making a classroom environment more challenging. Additionally, someone with low vision might find reading books more difficult due to the lack of visual clarity they experience, potentially hindering their full academic performance.

Different cognitive, physical, and sensory abilities each play an important role in how well we learn new material, both inside and outside of traditional educational environments, by providing us with neural pathways allowing our brains to better process stimuli related to what we are trying to learn, enhancing our capacity for retention, helping organise physical activities so that we remain alert throughout lessons/tasks assigned during class time, among many other factors (Fleishman, 1972). Thus, although not all individuals possess the same range or level across these three areas mentioned above, accommodations and support can be provided to help overcome any difficulties that might be encountered.

b) Clarify how these are related to the provision of an effective learning environment.

An effective learning environment is one where students are able to engage meaningfully and productively with the material being presented.

To create an optimal learning space, it is important to take into account different cognitive, physical, and sensory abilities when designing educational programs or settings. This can be done by providing appropriate accommodations such as extra time for tests or assignments if needed, making sure information is available through multiple modalities (e.g., visual and auditory) so that all individuals have equal access regardless of their individual needs, getting assistance from other teachers or instructors who understand how certain disabilities may affect a student’s ability to learn new material, and creating collaborative activities that involve every student throughout lessons. This will ensure everyone feels included rather than isolated due to any impairments they might experience within the classroom setting.

Apart from these, it is also important to focus on creating a classroom environment that promotes respect, inclusion, and empathy amongst all its members. This will help create an atmosphere of trust and safety that encourages learning. All in all, taking into account different cognitive, physical, and sensory abilities when designing educational programs or settings allows for the provision of an effective learning environment that can accommodate each individual’s unique needs while still enabling them to reach their full academic potential.

c) Reflect on an example from your own experience of the impact of cognitive, physical, and sensory abilities on learning.

In terms of cognitive abilities, students with higher intelligence may be able to grasp concepts quickly, while those who are less academically inclined might need more time or require extra assistance to learn the same material. Apart from this, conditions such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can also make it hard for those affected to focus on the tasks at hand, which is why I try my best to differentiate learning by providing activities that cater more towards each student’s strengths. During my teaching practice, a particular student I had seemed to really struggle with understanding new concepts, yet when given the opportunity for more hands-on learning, he was able to fully grasp it within minutes. This showed me that all students learn differently, and some just need different ways of presenting material in order for them to understand and remember it better properly.

Physical abilities also play an important role in how easily someone is able to absorb knowledge from their environment as well as express themselves through writing or other means. Students with special needs, such as mobility issues, often struggle physically during lessons because certain tasks can be too strenuous for them. As an example, while taking a class, I had a student who needed extra time to complete assignments because of her difficulty in writing and typing due to her physical condition. To accommodate this need and help her excel academically, I would offer the option for students to send in an audio recording of their answers instead so that they could still understand the material being taught without worrying about physical restrictions.

Sensory abilities can also be seen to have a major impact on the learning experience. I remember having a student in my classroom who had partial hearing loss. This made it difficult for her to understand the instructions and information I was giving during class. To make sure she didn’t miss out, I tried my best to ensure that everyone in the classroom used clear language when speaking so that she could hear properly. In addition, when necessary or applicable, visual aids such as diagrams or charts were also provided, which helped students better process what they had learned from our lessons. I also ensured video resources used also had captions for the student’s benefit.

As a teacher, I understand that it is important to be aware of how these abilities may affect one’s learning process. An awareness of these differences among students in mind, coupled with strategies to suit them individually, can help ensure everyone reaches their potential both academically and personally.

d) What behaviours have you witnessed associated with each type of ability? Evaluate each behaviour type and suggest an appropriate way to manage it.

The student with ADHD displayed behaviours such as difficulty staying focused and concentrating, restlessness or fidgeting, talking out of turn, impulsiveness etc. I was able to manage these behaviours in the classroom by using techniques such as providing the student with break times, allowing them to move around the room and giving shorter assignments that can be completed in smaller chunks.

The student with physical needs displayed behaviours of difficulty writing or typing due to her condition. This led to frustration and a feeling of being left out and isolated from the rest of the class. It is suggested that these behaviours be managed by offering more hands-on activities and providing the student with extra time to complete tasks. Additionally, students with physical disabilities that inhibit their ability to write properly may be encouraged to supply audio recordings of answers; this will help alleviate some of this pressure, and it is easier for them to express themselves this way.

The student with partial hearing loss displayed behaviours such as confusion during instructions and being easily distracted. It became necessary to provide interventions and adaptations to the learning environment in order to ensure she was able to understand the material being taught. To accomplish this, I provided visual aids when possible, used clear language and made sure all video resources were accompanied by captions. This allowed her to properly process the information being presented in class without feeling left out or confused. Another suggestion would be the provision of hearing aids or any other kind of technological device that could aid her in hearing properly.

Task 3

a) Use your knowledge and experience within a learning environment to describe the key features and benefits of an inclusive learning environment.

Having mostly taught in environments where inclusiveness was highly valued, I have witnessed first-hand the key characteristics and benefits of such an environment. Some of my observations are as follows:

Based on my observations, inclusion inspires a sense of belonging for all students in the learning environment, regardless of their background or individual needs. It creates a safe and fair community by fostering respect and understanding among different people from diverse backgrounds, where each person can learn to accept differences among others while respecting one another’s opinions.

Diversity is welcomed in this environment by allowing everyone to express themselves freely without judgement or bias on any level, opening up channels of communication that would otherwise be closed off due to discrimination based on various characteristics such as gender identity/expression, race/ethnicity, etc., allowing these perspectives into conversations helps to create more meaningful educational experiences as well as meaningful relationships among classmates that were not previously possible.

In my experience, an inclusive learning environment encourages multiple ways of engaging with material to ensure that every student feels they have access regardless of circumstance. Educators can meet the learning needs of each individual and create teaching methods that are flexible to any student’s personal background or experience by using different strategies, such as the differentiated instruction model. This empowers students who may feel left out in traditional learning environments by providing them with more options for approaching their work and finding success within it.

I’ve seen how an inclusive environment encourages both teachers and students to take responsibility for our actions, with everyone understanding the importance of cultivating a diverse environment. This mutual respect and understanding, as well as accountability for our words and actions, creates a learning environment in which everyone, no matter where they come from or who they are, feels welcome.

Furthermore, in a particular school where I taught, community-building activities and team exercises help students better relate to one another and build meaningful relationships among classmates that would not have been possible otherwise. In conclusion, I believe that an inclusive learning environment has many key features and benefits, such as fostering respect for diversity, creating a safe space for all individuals to learn regardless of their backgrounds or individual needs, empowering student voices by giving them more choices in how they approach their work through differentiated instruction models and encouraging collaboration within the classroom so that everyone can achieve success together.

b) Assess the influence of personal, social and cultural factors in relation to the creation of an effective learning environment.

Personal, social and cultural factors all play a role in creating an effective learning environment. On the personal level, students need to feel motivated and engaged in order for them to learn effectively. Providing incentives or rewards for completing tasks successfully is one way to facilitate this. It is also essential that there is a positive atmosphere within the classroom where everyone feels comfortable asking questions and interacting with each other – this will encourage active participation, which helps improve understanding of concepts discussed during class time. Also, students with specific learning difficulties should be catered for accordingly – by allowing them to access extra resources or giving them more time on specific tasks if needed. This is important as it will ensure all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in their studies and reach the same educational standards.

On the social level, building relationships between students is important for establishing trust and respect, which makes a positive learning environment possible. Creating opportunities where group activities or projects can be carried out will also give them a chance to work as a team, helping build confidence within themselves and develop social skills such as communication – this is especially helpful in preparing students for their future adult lives. In addition, they need to be made aware of the expectations and standards expected from them when it comes to behaviour so that boundaries are set; this will ensure that order is kept in class and everyone can focus on their learning. It is essential to promote respect between peers as this will create a safe environment in which individuals can explore their own ideas and be confident in expressing themselves.

In recent years, as classrooms have become more diverse, it has become more important to take cultural influences into account. By having a thorough understanding of each student’s cultural background, teachers can ensure that the classroom is a friendly and inclusive place for everyone. They can also improve learning by adapting the way they present materials to accommodate students from all backgrounds equally. For example, they might engage students in activities related to their own cultures or introduce certain subject matters that are highly relevant to their culture, all while respecting these students.

It is essential that consideration for these influences is taken into account when aiming to foster successful academic achievement among learners while also promoting inclusion.

c) Critically evaluate a learning situation from your own experience where you have based your planning on the creation of an inclusive learning environment as part of a specific learning goal.

As part of a diploma-level course I recently taught, I was determined to create an inclusive learning environment for all students. To this end, I created a class-wide lesson plan which involved introducing material in three different ways – visual cues, tactile activities and discussion.

When introducing the concept of the prevention of infection, I used a variety of visuals to show students how important it is for health and social care practitioners to take steps such as wearing gloves and washing their hands. I also gave the students an activity in which they had to create scenarios about when it is appropriate or inappropriate for medical staff members to wear protective clothing. This allowed them to get involved with the lesson by role-playing, making predictions and suggesting solutions. We also demonstrated how to properly wear different PPE gear and other relevant precautions in the classroom to demonstrate our commitment to safety.

In addition, I provided tactile activities where they got involved in looking at actual objects related to infection control, such as gloves and sanitising products. This enabled learners of different learning abilities (including those who prefer more visual or tactile engagement) a hands-on approach that had positive results; this was also beneficial for some students with dyslexia as it allowed them to become actively engaged without having an overload of text-based tasks and visuals which could be confusing for some individuals with this condition due potential reversal errors caused by over stimulation.

The third element was discussion-based activities that encouraged my learners to think critically and share ideas around the topic of infection control while considering its implications on different cultural backgrounds, age groups, gender identities etc. For example, we held debates regarding specific methods being more effective than others depending upon who might be at risk from becoming infected; this led us into a conversation about various types of germs found within our environment – focusing mainly on bacteria’s relationship with humans – enabling further questioning as well contributing invaluable knowledge amongst each other. It made sure all participants felt included no matter what level they were working at by allowing everyone to contribute.

The outcome of my planning was a successful learning environment where all students felt respected and included, enabling them to gain knowledge about the prevention of infection while being involved in meaningful activities with their peers. The lessons I had prepared allowed for a variety of approaches which provided an opportunity for different learners with diverse needs and experiences to engage meaningfully – particularly those who may have faced difficulty accessing the material through more traditional methods – and ultimately successfully reach our desired learning goal.

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