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HSC CM5: Infection Prevention and Control in Health and Social Care

Level: Level 3 Diploma

1.1. Describe types of microbiological organisms that cause disease.

There are numerous kinds of microorganisms that can cause diseases. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are examples. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, meningitis, and gastroenteritis are some of the more common diseases caused by these organisms.

Bacteria are single-celled organisms that can be found in all environments. They can cause disease by releasing toxins that harm tissues or by invading and destroying cells. Some bacteria can also resist antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

Viruses are thousands of times smaller than bacteria and can only reproduce within living cells. They cause disease by causing cell damage or death, which can lead to organ failure or death if not treated. Viruses are also the cause of some of the most severe human diseases, including HIV/AIDS and Ebola virus disease.

Fungi can be found in soil, on plants, and in water. They are frequently responsible for skin infections such as athlete’s foot and ringworm. Some fungi, however, can infiltrate other organs, such as the lungs (aspergillosis), the brain (cryptococcosis), and even blood vessels ( candida ).

Parasites are more extensive than viruses, but they usually need a host organism to survive and reproduce. Malaria, filariasis, and toxoplasmosis are examples of common parasitic diseases. If not treated promptly with appropriate medical care, all of these microbiological organisms have the potential to cause serious illness or death.

Pathogens can cause disease in addition to the microorganisms mentioned above. Prions, which cause diseases like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and rickettsiae, which cause illnesses like Rocky Mountain spotted fever, are examples of these.

2.1. Explain the features of vector borne disease

A vector-borne disease is one that is spread to humans through the bite of an infected insect or animal. These diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites found in the blood of infected animals and transmitted to humans through bites. Mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice are the most common vectors of these diseases.

There are several ways for these diseases to be transmitted from animals to humans. The virus or bacteria that causes the disease may be present in the saliva of the insect or vector and will be injected into the human when bitten. In other cases, an infected animal may scratch or bite a human, allowing bacteria or viruses present in their blood to enter through breaks in the skin. Finally, some vector-borne diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans indirectly through contaminated food or water supplies.

The symptoms of vector-borne diseases vary depending on the pathogen, but they can include fever, rash, joint pain, muscle aches, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Some infections can also cause more serious complications like meningitis, encephalitis, organ failure, or even death. Early detection and treatment of these illnesses are critical for avoiding serious health issues.

Lyme disease is one of the most well-known vector-borne illnesses. Lyme disease is caused by a bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through bites from infected deer ticks. Ticks can be found on trees, grasses, bushes and other plants in areas where there are large populations of wild animals, such as deer or rabbits, that they feed off of. The symptoms of Lyme disease may not appear immediately after exposure but can develop over time if left untreated, leading to more serious complications like joint pain or paralysis.

People can take several precautions to protect themselves from vector-borne diseases. Using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and avoiding areas where insects or other animals are known to carry these diseases are present are all examples. Furthermore, prompt treatment of any animal bites or scratches is critical to reducing the risk of infection. Finally, it is vital to practise good hygiene and cleanliness to avoid pathogen contamination of food or water supplies.

3.1. Describe how pathogenic microorganisms are transmitted.

Pathogenic microorganisms can be transmitted via direct contact, droplet transmission, airborne transmission, or vector-borne transmission. Direct contact occurs when an infected person comes into physical contact with a susceptible host. This can occur as a result of activities such as kissing, sexual intercourse, or sharing contaminated needles. Droplet transmission occurs when pathogenic microorganisms are expelled from an infected individual’s respiratory tract in the form of droplets and breathed in by a susceptible host.

When pathogenic microorganisms are suspended in the air and inhaled by a susceptible host, airborne transmission occurs. When pathogenic microorganisms are transmitted by vectors such as mosquitos or ticks, this is referred to as vector-borne transmission. Mosquitoes (malaria), ticks (Lyme disease), and triatomine bugs are the most common vectors of human disease (Chagas disease).

A reservoir is a place where pathogenic microorganisms can live and multiply. Reservoirs for disease-causing microorganisms include humans, animals, insects, soil, water, food supplies (including meat), blood products and transplantation organs. Humans are considered the main reservoir of some diseases, such as the influenza virus. Other reservoirs, like rodents, provide continuous exposure to humans by spreading the pathogens they harbour in their droppings or through direct contact with them.

Pathogenic microorganisms can also be transmitted through food or water contaminated with an infected person’s faeces. This is known as faecal-oral transmission, and it is the most common way for diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever to spread. Contact with infected individuals’ blood or bodily fluids can also result in transmission. This is how diseases such as HIV and Ebola are typically transmitted. Finally, pathogenic microorganisms can be passed on to children during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. This is referred to as vertical transmission, and it can result in serious birth defects or neonatal infections.

3.2. Explain why individuals may be more vulnerable to infection.

Many factors can increase someone’s susceptibility to infection. Some of the most common are age, overall health, and any underlying medical conditions; a weakened immune system or poor hygiene can also make someone more susceptible to illness. Some of the reasons for infection vulnerability are as follows:

  • Immune system weakness can occur as a result of underlying medical conditions or treatments. Cancer, HIV/AIDS, organ transplantation, and other diseases are examples. Individuals are more susceptible to infection as their bodies are unable to fight off foreign invaders as effectively.
  • Medications that suppress the immune system may also make people more susceptible to infection. Corticosteroids, chemotherapy, and other immunosuppressive medications are examples. This is due to the fact that these medications impair the body’s ability to fight infections.
  • Because of age-related changes in their bodies, the immune systems of the elderly are frequently compromised. As a result, they are more vulnerable to infection than younger people with stronger immune systems.
  • Children’s immune systems are also generally weaker than adults. As a result, children are more likely than adults to contract infections if they are exposed to them.
  • Poor nutrition can weaken the immune system, making people more susceptible to infection. This is common in malnourished children.
  • Lack of access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities can also raise the risk of infection by exposing people to contaminated water and soil. This is especially problematic in developing countries, where such facilities are frequently insufficient.
  • Stress has also been shown to suppress the immune system, making people more vulnerable to infections. This is why it is recommended that people take steps to manage their stress levels during times when they may be especially vulnerable, such as during exam periods or following a bereavement.

3.3. Describe the body’s defence mechanisms against infection.

The body has a number of defence mechanisms against infection.

The first line of defence is the skin, which acts as a barrier to keep out bacteria and other potential pathogens.

Mucous membranes, such as those in the nose and mouth, also act as barriers to infection. If these physical barriers are breached, the next line of defence is the immune system.

The immune system consists of a number of different cells and proteins that work together to protect the body from infection. When bacteria or other pathogens enter the body, they are recognised by specialised cells known as antigen-presenting cells. These cells present pieces of the pathogen (known as antigens) on their surface to other immune cells called T-cells. T-cells that recognise these antigens will then multiply and release chemicals known as cytokines which help to destroy the invading pathogen. B-cells are another type of cell involved in immunity; they produce antibodies which attach themselves to pathogens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are two main types of immunity: innate (or natural) immunity, which everyone is born with, and acquired (or adaptive) immunity, which develops after exposure to certain infections or through vaccination. Innate immunity provides a general level of protection against all infections, while acquired immunity is more specific and protects against particular infections.

The white blood cells (leukocytes) are the main cells involved in immunity. There are two main types of leukocytes: phagocytes and lymphocytes. Phagocytic cells engulf and destroy foreign invaders, while lymphocyte cells produce antibodies that recognise specific pathogens.

The body also has a number of other defence mechanisms against infection, such as fever (which helps to kill bacteria and viruses), cough reflex (which helps to expel pathogens from the lungs) and tears (which flush out potential pathogens from the eyes).

The body’s defence mechanisms against infection are constantly changing and evolving in order to keep up with the ever-changing landscape of potential pathogens. Furthermore, the different mechanisms work together to provide a comprehensive and effective defence against infection.

3.4. Explain how to break the chain of infection.

The process of infection begins with the introduction of infectious agents into a susceptible host and ends with disease development in that host. The chain is made up of six links:

The organism that causes the disease is known as an Infectious Agent. It must be able to replicate within the host and be transmitted from one host to another.

The infectious agent lives and multiplies in the Reservoir. It could be a person, an animal, or even inanimate objects like food or water.

The Portal of Exit is where the infectious agent leaves its reservoir and enters another person (the susceptible host). An infected person, for example, may be coughing or sneezing, which can spread virus-containing droplets through the air to other people nearby, who then inhale them. Alternatively, contaminated food or water can be consumed, allowing bacteria to enter the digestive tract. Insect bites can also transmit diseases by injecting viruses or bacteria-containing saliva directly into their victim’s bloodstream.

According to Holmes et al. (2008), once introduced into a new host, infection will only occur if there are susceptible individuals present to infect; if there are no susceptible, infection will not occur regardless of how many virulent organisms are present. In other words, “infectiousness” exists only in relation to “vulnerability.” As long as a population is susceptible, every individual will succumb to infection, assuming they live long enough and do not develop immunity. This concept has significant implications for vaccination programmes aimed at eliminating the disease by focusing on pathogen reservoirs (e.g., domestic animals) and herd immunity thresholds to slow disease spread in humans.

The Mode of Transmission describes how the infectious agent spreads from one person to another. It can be transmitted through direct contact (touching or sexual intercourse), indirect contact (sharing utensils or contaminated surfaces), droplet transmission (coughing or sneezing), or vector-borne transmission (such as mosquitoes).

The Infectious Agent enters its new host through a Portal of Entry. It could enter through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, or mouth, as well as through skin breaks or injections.

Susceptible Host: an individual who lacks immunity to the specific disease and can thus become infected with it.

There are numerous methods for breaking the chain of infection and preventing disease spread. One method is to immunise people against diseases such as influenza, pertussis, and measles—this aids in the development of immunity in individuals and the reduction of disease reservoirs within populations. Handwashing for at least 20 seconds with soap and water, covering coughs and sneezes with a tissue or sleeve, avoiding close contact with sick people, disinfecting potentially contaminated surfaces, and washing fruits and vegetables before eating them are all practical measures that everyone can take to help break the chain of infection.

4.1. Explain methods of micro-organism control:


Sterilisation is the process of removing all forms of life from an object or area. This can be accomplished through physical means, such as boiling, or through chemical means, such as bleach. Sterilisation is frequently used in healthcare settings to prevent the spread of infection. It can be used to prevent the growth of microorganisms in food or other areas where contamination is a concern.

Sterilisation can be used to preserve items for an extended period of time, such as medical instruments. This procedure ensures that there is no risk of infection when using these items. Sterilisation is an important part of keeping people safe from harmful microorganisms. It is critical in many industries to avoid cross-contamination.


Disinfection is the process of killing or inactivating harmful bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms. This can be accomplished through either chemical or physical means. Bleach, alcohol, and heat are common disinfectants. Disinfection is critical in preventing disease transmission. It is frequently used in food preparation and healthcare settings to ensure that surfaces are clean and safe.

Disinfection can kill microorganisms other than bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Disinfection and sterilisation are terms that are frequently used interchangeably. However, sterilisation is a more extreme measure that involves the complete removal of all microorganisms, including beneficial ones. Sterilisation is usually accomplished through the use of heat or chemicals, whereas disinfection can also be accomplished through physical means such as filtration.


Pasteurisation is the process of heating a food or beverage to a specific temperature for a set period of time and then immediately cooling it. This process kills harmful bacteria that can cause food poisoning. It also slows the growth of spoilage bacteria. It has no effect on the nutritional value of the food.

Pasteurisation, in addition to killing bacteria, extends the shelf-life of food and beverages by slowing the growth of spoilage bacteria. This is because the heat from pasteurisation damages the bacterial cells, making it difficult for them to reproduce. It also denatures enzymes that bacteria require for growth. Pasteurisation is an effective method for killing harmful bacteria and extending the shelf life of food and beverages.


Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to cleanliness. Sanitation includes the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human waste, solid waste, domestic wastewater, and sewage. Improving sanitation can have a significant impact on public health, reducing disease spread and improving quality of life; poor sanitation is a major contributor to water pollution.

In addition to sanitation facilities, effective sanitation necessitates education and public awareness about hygiene and safe waste disposal practices. Sanitation infrastructure must be properly maintained in order to function properly and prevent disease outbreaks.


Asepsis is the absence of harmful microorganisms. Asepsis prevents the spread of microorganisms and aids in their control. This is accomplished through the use of sterile techniques, which eliminate or greatly reduce the number of microorganisms present on surfaces and equipment. Asepsis helps to prevent infection by keeping microorganisms at bay; wounds, and other sites where they can cause harm.

5.1. Explain the importance of personal hygiene and attire in relation to infection control.

In order to control infection, it is critical to maintain good personal hygiene and dress appropriately. This is due to the fact that bacteria and other microorganisms can cause infections, and poor hygiene or inappropriate clothing can allow them to enter the body.

Hands, for example, can become contaminated with faeces-borne bacteria such as E. coli or Shigella if they are not properly washed after using the toilet. These bacteria can then be transferred to other surfaces or people, resulting in a disease outbreak. Similarly, if food is not properly prepared or handled, it can become contaminated with dangerous bacteria like Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause serious illness.

Wearing appropriate clothing is also essential for infection control. For example, when caring for patients, healthcare workers must wear gloves to prevent the spread of infection from one person to another. Furthermore, wearing protective clothing such as masks and gowns during procedures that generate aerosol-able droplets (e.g., suctioning) reduces the risk of pathogen exposure and transmission.

Badges should be worn at all times in healthcare facilities to identify staff members. In addition, name tags help patients and visitors identify the correct person when they have questions or need assistance. Keeping badges clean and free from contaminants is also important.

Other infection control measures, such as getting vaccinated, using antimicrobial agents correctly, and disposing of contaminated materials safely, should be followed in addition to personal hygiene and attire. We can help to reduce the spread of infection and protect ourselves and others by doing so.

Finally, good personal hygiene and appropriate clothing are critical in controlling the infection. This is due to the fact that they aid in the prevention of the spread of harmful bacteria and other microorganisms.

5.2. Explain the correct hand washing technique.

Hand washing is essential for removing dirt, grease, and microbes from your skin. You are less likely to spread infection or illness to yourself or others if you do this. Furthermore, regular hand washing can help prevent dry skin. Follow these steps to ensure proper hand washing:

  • Soak your hands in running water and apply soap to them. Hot water can strip your skin of its natural oils, so choose a temperature that is comfortable for you. Make a lather with enough soap to cover your hands.
  • Create friction by rubbing your palms together. This aids in the removal of dirt, grease, and other microbes from your skin, allowing them to be rinsed away more quickly.
  • Using interlaced fingers, rub the backs of each hand in a circular motion with the opposite palm.
  • Scrub for about 20 seconds between each finger, including under the fingernails, where germs love to hide.
  • Thoroughly rinse your hands under running water to remove all soap residue.
  • Completely dry with a clean towel or an air dryer.

Proper hand-washing techniques are essential, especially after using the restroom, before eating, and after coming into contact with someone who is sick. It is also critical to wash your hands after handling garbage or anything else that may be contaminated.

5.3. Explain the use of personal protective equipment.

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is required in health and social care settings to protect workers from hazardous substances, infectious agents, and potentially harmful physical factors. PPE includes a variety of clothing, eyewear, gloves, and footwear that are specifically designed to protect the wearer from workplace hazards.

One of the most important aspects of PPE use is ensuring that it is used correctly. Inadequately fitted or worn PPE can actually introduce new risks or worsen existing ones. Loose-fitting gloves, for example, can increase the risk of cuts or punctures by snagging on sharp objects. In contrast, ill-fitting respirators can leak harmful chemicals or particles into the wearer’s breathing zone. Employees must therefore be appropriately trained in how to select, fit, and use PPE correctly for their own safety and well-being.

Another issue with PPE is its effectiveness against various types of hazards found in various work environments. While some types of PPE provide reasonable protection against one type of hazard (for example, noise ear defenders), they may provide little or no protection against others (e.g., chemical splash goggles). Employers must assess all potential hazards in the workplace and select appropriate PPE based on both its level of protection and any potential drawbacks, such as reduced mobility or visibility.

5.4. Explain the process of safe waste disposal for:

Body fluids

There are many ways to clean up and dispose of body fluids depending on the type, but the most important thing is to do it safely. The first step is to wear gloves and a mask if possible. Next, you will need to clean the area with soap and water. Once the area is clean, you can disinfect it with bleach or another cleaning product. Finally, you will need to dry the area completely before disposing of any waste material in a sealed bag or container.

All bodily fluids must be treated as infectious and handled as such. When handling bodily fluids, healthcare workers should wear proper PPE to prevent the spread of infection. Furthermore, according to federal, state, and local regulations, all sharps (e.g., needles, syringes) must be disposed of in a sharps container.


The process of safe linen waste disposal begins with sorting the linen into various categories. These categories include soiled, ripped, or stained linen. After sorting, the linen is placed in designated containers for transport to the appropriate disposal facility.

Soiled or ripped linen should be disposed of in a container labelled “infectious waste.” This type of waste is usually taken to a medical incinerator and burned at a high temperature. Items that are stained but otherwise in good condition can frequently be donated to charities or sold as used items. However, if they are heavily stained, they may need to be thrown away.

There is also “hazardous waste,” which includes highly flammable, poisonous, or radioactive items. These items must be disposed of in a specialised facility and should not be thrown away in a regular trash can.

Sharps and equipment

The process of safe sharps and equipment disposal begins with sorting the waste into two categories: contaminated and non-contaminated. Items that have been contaminated have come into contact with blood or other bodily fluids, whereas non-contaminated items have not.

Items that have been contaminated should be placed in a biohazard container, which is a sturdy, leak-proof container that is clearly labelled as containing biohazardous material. Items that are not contaminated can be placed in regular trash bags.

Once the waste has been sorted, it should be taken to the proper disposal location. Contaminated materials must be transported to an approved medical waste facility and incinerated or otherwise disposed of in accordance with regulations. Non-contaminated materials can usually be discarded in your regular garbage can.

6.1. Use the correct hand-washing technique.

Hand washing is one of the most effective ways to keep germs at bay. The proper way to wash your hands is to lather them with soap and water and scrub them thoroughly until they are clean. You can use either warm or cold water, but avoid touching your face, hair, or clothing while washing because these areas are especially prone to infection. Finally, thoroughly rinse your hands with cool water. See answer 5.2 for more.

6.2. Use personal protective equipment.

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is clothing, devices, or accessories worn to protect against Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Substances (OEMs), such as chemicals and biological agents. PPE can protect the wearer from skin irritation, respiratory irritation, eye irritation, and blindness caused by OEH contact. Gloves, face shields, and laboratory coats are the most common types of PEP. See answer 5.1 for more.

6.3. Dispose of waste safely.

If waste disposal is not done correctly, it can be a dangerous job. There are numerous waste disposal methods available, including recycling, composting, and incineration. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. To protect human health and the environment, it is critical to choose the best option for the given situation. See answer 5.3 for more.

7.1. Evaluate the use of drugs to control and treat infectious diseases.

The use of drugs to control and treat infectious diseases is a contentious issue. Some people believe that drug use is necessary to protect the population from potentially fatal diseases, while others believe that drug use can cause more harm than good. To treat infectious diseases, many different types of drugs are used. Antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, and antiparasitics are a few examples. Each type of medication has advantages and disadvantages.

Antibiotics are the most commonly used type of drug for infection treatment. They are generally very effective at killing bacteria, but they can also kill beneficial bacteria in the body, causing issues such as diarrhoea or yeast infections. Antibiotics frequently cause nausea and vomiting as side effects.

Antivirals are another type of medication used to treat viral infections like influenza or HIV/AIDS. These drugs work by interfering with the replication cycle of viruses, preventing them from reproducing and infecting the body (CDC, 2018). Although antiviral medications have fewer side effects than antibiotics, they may not be effective against all viruses (CDC, 2018). For example, while oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is effective against influenza A and B viruses, it is unknown whether it will be effective against other respiratory viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 ( CDC, 2020 ).

Antifungals are a type of medication that is used to treat fungal infections. Antifungal agents, like antivirals, work by interfering with fungal cell reproduction; however, unlike antivirals, which only target virus cells, some antifungal agents have activity against fungi and bacteria. As a result, they can be used to treat mixed bacterial/fungal infections in which both organisms contribute to disease symptoms. Fluconazole (Diflucan), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and itraconazole (Sporanox) are three commonly prescribed oral antifungal medications. These medications are generally well tolerated, but they may cause gastrointestinal upset, headache, or rash.

Antiparasitic drugs are used to treat parasitic infections. These medications work by either directly killing the parasite or preventing it from reproducing. Antiparasitic medications that are commonly prescribed include albendazole (Albenza), mebendazole (Vermox), and ivermectin (Stromectol). These medications are generally safe, but they may cause nausea, vomiting, or diarrhoea.

7.2. Explain how antimicrobial resistance occurs.

When a microorganism develops the ability to resist the effects of an antimicrobial drug that was previously able to kill or control it, this is referred to as antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial resistance can occur for a variety of reasons, including:

  • Overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs: Antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread when antimicrobials are used too frequently or incorrectly.
  • Poor infection control practices: Infection control practices that are inadequate can allow resistant bacteria to spread from person to person or from animal to person.
  • Lack of sanitation and clean water: The spread of disease-causing bacteria, including those resistant to antibiotics, can be facilitated by a lack of sanitation and clean water.
  • The use of antibiotics in agriculture: Antibiotic use in agriculture may result in the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
  • Natural resistance development: Bacteria can develop mutations that make them resistant to antimicrobial drugs over time.

Furthermore, according to the CDC, “One of the world’s most pressing public health issues is antimicrobial resistance. It occurs when bacteria or other microbes develop the ability to withstand the effects of an antimicrobial medication used to treat them.”

8.1. Explain the requirements of RIDDOR in relation to infection prevention and control.

RIDDOR (Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 2013) requires employers to take reasonable steps to prevent exposure to risks of injury or ill health, including the risk of infection, when it comes to infection prevention and control. Employers must also ensure that their employees are properly trained and equipped to do their jobs safely and that effective risk management systems are in place to manage any risks that cannot be eliminated.

Controlling exposure to potentially infectious material should be the foundation of infection prevention and control measures. This entails determining which activities or situations may result in exposure, assessing the risks involved, and implementing controls to reduce those risks. Personal protective equipment (PPE), safe work practices, decontamination procedures, vaccination programmes, and other controls may be used.

When implementing new or revised infection prevention and control measures, employers should consult with employees, as they may have valuable insights into how to achieve compliance in the workplace. Employees should also be kept informed of any changes so that they can protect themselves adequately.

Measures for infection prevention and control should be reviewed on a regular basis to ensure that they are still effective and up to date. This is especially important in the current climate because the threats posed by infections like COVID-19 are constantly changing.

8.2. Explain the requirements of COSHH in relation to infection prevention and control.

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 is abbreviated as COSHH. These rules are intended to protect workers from hazardous substances in the workplace.

COSHH emphasises infection prevention and control because many substances used in healthcare settings can pose a serious risk of infection if not handled properly. To reduce this risk, employers must ensure that their employees are properly trained in infection prevention and control procedures and have access to appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE). Infectious agents are associated with four major types of hazards:

  • Contact: where skin or mucous membranes come into direct contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces;
  • Droplet: where small droplets containing infectious particles are expelled from the mouth or nose;
  • Airborne: where tiny particles containing infectious agents float in the air and can be inhaled;
  • Vector-borne: where insects or other animals transmit infections by biting or coming into contact with broken skin.

Infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites and can range from mild illnesses like colds and flu to more serious conditions like meningitis and hepatitis. Infections can be fatal in some circumstances. As a result, it is critical that healthcare workers take proper precautions to avoid coming into contact with any substance that could potentially cause an infection. The COSHH requirements for infection prevention and control state that:

  • All healthcare workers must receive proper infection prevention and control training.
  • All employees must have access to proper personal protective equipment (PPE).
  • Employers must provide adequate facilities for handwashing and equipment decontamination.
  • Work areas must be kept clean and clutter-free.

9.1. Analyse the role and responsibilities of the health and social care practitioner in relation to infection prevention and control

Practitioners in health and social care play a role in infection prevention and control by adhering to policies, procedures, and reporting lines. Maintaining roles and responsibilities in relation to other involved practitioner groups is part of one’s own responsibility for infection prevention and control. Non-maintenance can have a negative impact on the population served.

They are in charge of ensuring that policies, procedures, and reporting lines are followed. They should be aware of the risks of infections and take precautions to avoid them. They must also communicate with other infection prevention and control practitioners, such as health care professionals, nurses, and pharmacists.

It is the responsibility of health and social care practitioners to ensure that policies, procedures, and lines of reporting are followed. They should also be aware of the risks of infections and take precautions to avoid them. In order to ensure effective infection prevention, health and social care practitioners must collaborate with other involved practitioner groups, such as nurses and pharmacists.

Furthermore, practitioners in health and social care must be aware of the risks associated with infections. They should take precautions to avoid them by adhering to policies, procedures, and reporting lines.

In summary, health and social care practitioners play a role in infection prevention and control by adhering to policies, procedures, and reporting lines. Own responsibility includes ensuring that roles are followed as well as communicating with other practitioner groups involved. Consequences can occur for the community being served if infection prevention is not effectively implemented.


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